Suffice it to Say

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It is interesting that the word “he” appears in these two base forms in Indo-European languages:

  • El (Portuguese, Spanish, French)
  • On (Slavic)

Note that Germanic (other than German which seems just confused) languages are a bit different here using some form of “that” (compare Latvia ).  Also Italian, Lithuanian and Estonian slip into an “s”.

It is also curious that “El” is a Middle Eastern god and is a suffix in some of those deities’ names, whereas -on is a suffix in many Eastern and Southern European names and Deity names (Jasion,  Pieron).  Of course, -on is a suffix in other names too whose origin is uncertain (Simon) and Slavs construct new words using -on as a suffix even now (kujon).  Of course, -on as a suffix appears in other countries as well.

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May 24, 2017

On Herbert’s Recorded Miracles

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We cannot emphasize enough that telavic mythology has not been thoroughly explored.  The major studies of sources have produced plenty of material but missed some items.  Note that a lot of these items are not well known even in their respective countries of production.  This can be said of the mentions of Slavic religious practices by:

We were guided to yet another such find just recently.  A scholar of the Jagiellonian University* from Kielce – Michał Łuczyński with a translation by Małgorzata Kruszelnicka – published an article  in 2009 wherein he notes a reference to Slavic religion in  Herberti turrium sardiniae archiepiscopal De miraculis libri tres (Herbert Archbishop of Torres in Sardinia – Of the Miracles in Three Books).  The specific reference is to a confrontation between a Christian monk and a Slavic pagan “demon”.

[* Incidentally, it was also a scholar of the Jagiellonian University – Maria Kowalczyk (or Kowalczykówna) – who discovered the most ancient references to Polish Gods in in the sermons of Lucas of Great Kozmin (see “Wróżby, czary i zabobony w średniowiecznych rękopisach Biblioteki Jagiellońskiej,” 1979).  Like Szacherska’s work, this was ignored until the Leszek Kolankiewicz’s (a theatrical scholar!) book “Dziady” brought it back to light in 1999.   Łuczyński’s article came out in 2009 – ten years after Kolankiewicz’s book so it seems something is brought to light every ten years – we’ll take it.]

This story is only present in three manuscripts of the Miracles where (as Chapter 93) it is referred to as: Quomodo zabulus in scemate regio se ipsum ydalatris ostendebat or “How the devil revealed himself to idolaters in [some] unattractive country.” (elsewhere aka De converso, qui vidit ante conversionem dyabolum ydolatris se ostendere in scemate regio)

The same was previously also noted by a Danish writer in the 1930s (exact source now escapes memory), by Stella Maria Szacherska in 1968 in her work Rola klasztorów duńskich w ekspansji Danii na Pomorzu Zachodnim u schyłku XII wieku (“The role of Danish monasteries in Denmark’s expansion in Western Pomerania at the end of the 12th century”) and, more recently, in 2005 by  Gabriela Kompatscher Gufler (Herbert von Clairvaux und sein Liber miraculorum: die Kurzversion).  For other mentions of this work, you can see Łuczyński’s article in Mythologia Slavica, volume 16, 2013, page 69.

Note that the Miracles appear in Migne’s Patrologia Latina – volume 185 (starting on p. 1272) but do not contain the aforesaid adventure.  This is because the Migne version used the most common manuscript version.  Interestingly, even that version contains a reference to Slavs in Book Three, Chapter 36 (which corresponds to Chapter 94 of the version containing the Quomodo story) (though that story of the Slavs has been interpreted to refer to Prussia instead in Wiener’s work which was also accepted by Marian T.W. Łodyński).  Because the Slav portion appears right after the Quomodo story we showcase both here (For the Quomodo story we use the Łuczyński/Kruszelnicka translation with some alterations – for example, scemate regio probably refers to an unattractive country not to “regal gowns”).  

So who was Herbert?  We are talking about Herbert of Clairvaux (circa 1130 – circa 1181) Monk at Clairvaux (1153–68/9), abbot of Mores in Champagne; but later also archbishop of Sassaria or Porto Torres, Sardinia (circa 1181).  To be clear he did not perform the miracles in his “Miracles”.  Rather his book is a composition of stories regarding others’ miracles put together by Herbert.  In the case of the Quomodo story Herbert notes that it was relayed to him by Henry of Clairvaux but the name of the protagonist monk remains unknown.

How the devil revealed himself to idolaters in [some] unattractive country
[Chapter 93]

“This is [the story] that the dignified-looking Henry, once a monk of Claraevallis, now an abbot residing in Denmark for many years, told us – [a story of] a noble monk from his abbey.  The monk in question, now still wearing holy gowns, in his youthful years went to the pagan land mentioned above* for the purpose of [carrying on of] negotiations.”

[* note – if above refers to the prior Chapter 92, that would be the same as Migne’s Book III, Chapter 35 in which indeed a “ad terram paganorum” does appear.  Since nothing says that that is a Slavic country, It is also, therefore, possible that this story also does not have anything to do with Slavs though, given, the timing of composition, that is unlikely – given that in the 12th century the only openly pagan European countries would have been parts of Slavic lands and Baltic regions – but the Christianization of the Baltics did not start in earnest till the 13th century and also those lands were further from Denmark which is the residence of the abbot conveying the story]

“However, in that territory there is an unclean statue inhabited by a most frightening God, who answers many calls and who is worshipped by the local inhabitants solely out of fear.  Sometimes he made himself visible and appeared as if a tyrant with a terrifying countenance and voice and he made these unhappiest people worship him by means of threats and beatings.  Furthermore, on that God’s order, he frequently sent diseases, disasters, infertility and other plagues and aroused fear in the unfaithful.”

“[But] if it had ever appeared that he was giving up those criminal acts or that he was acting more gently, [then] he was regarded as the deliverer of blessings.  Every year, on specified days they [these people] used to arrive festively at his temple from everywhere and they used to feast together although their participation was dishonorable [from a Christian view]. They used to set up a separate table and set it lavishly with delicious dishes, and all that used to be devoured in an invisible way by the gluttonous spirit. Then, when they [the people] saw everything had been eaten, they themselves ate joyfully because they thought the tipsy deity would be favourable to them.”

“One day, when they gathered in one place, the young Christian [I] mentioned before happened to be there. Suddenly, the well-known spirit appeared, decorated with royal ornamentation, sat down on his throne and spoke to them in a proud and contemptuous way.  Yet, those lamentable people mocked at by that shameless deity stood terrified at the sight of him and worshipped him.  When the young Christian saw it, he understood that it was the devil turned into an angel of light.  He felt fear of Satan and, calling the name of Christ, he secretly made a sign of the cross . He did not dare, however, to make the sign of the cross openly on his forehead due to a great number of people being there.  Having noticed what he did secretly, the wild deity spoke to him in his native language: ‘Hey, you deceitful Christian, tell me what you are plotting in secrecy.  Hiding under the cloak, you have made the hateful sign of the cross on your chest.  Are you also making an attempt to throw me out of my temple?  I had left the place from which you came to [come to?] my land.  I hid in the sea escaping from your cross and now that I have returned, you do not allow me to find shelter from your cross in my own temples.  You have eaten my food, you have armed against me with your signs and once again you are expelling me against my will from my domicile like an ungodly traitor’.”

“When the pagans heard the demon’s voice, they hardly understood the conversation and they were very surprised at who participated in the conversation and what it was about.  The alarmed young Christian who heard and who understood the speech, hid in the crowd because he was weak and inexperienced in his faith to such a degree that he was afraid he would be captured by the infidels and punished with death.  However, once the demon disappeared, the crowd dispersed, the young man’s wonderment diminished and [instead] what he saw and heard helped him to deepen his Christian faith.  Soon, when he returned to his native land, he went to the abbey mentioned above, where he [continued] in the service of God, and he revealed to the abbot and to the other monks what had happened to him, in order to strengthen them spiritually.”

“What else can be said: if the power of the Cross is so great that a Christian of small faith furtively and fearfully made the sign of cross [and that] caused the rulers of darkness to escape, what do you think [then] happens when men of virtue and missionaries strong in faith arrive with what is the word of God?  How many piles of corpses they created, what great multitudes of pagans they gained [for the faith] in a short time, they discovered it [all] in the words of truth which are in the Psalm: ‘A thousand fall by your side, and ten thousand to your right. And in the Ministerial Book: Five of you will chase a hundred, and a hundred will chase ten thousand. God wishes this kind of [bountiful] harvest in order to send harvesters to reap. Harvest is plentiful, but [there are] very few harvesters.  However, those very few harvesters who came from all over are blessed profusely and they reap the harvest of souls for God.  As a result, thousands of pagans only just baptized, in a short time grow in number more and more to such a degree that the bishops and metropolitans are appointed in many cities and God’s grapevine is spread far and wide among barbaric people, who [previously] may have heard the name of wine but [until then]  did not taste [that] wine.”

Quomodo zabulus in scemate regio se ipsum ydalatris ostendebat
aka De converso, qui vidit ante conversionem dyabolum ydolatris se ostendere in scemate regio

Vir venerabilis Hainricus, quondam monachus Claraeuallis et nunc iam per annos plurimos abbatizans in regione Danensi, de quodam honesto monasterii sui converso tale aliquid nobis significavit.  Predictus itaque frater dum adhuc secularem habitum gereret, in iuvenili aetate perrexit ad negociandum in supradictam terram paganorum.  Est autem in illis locis symulacrum inmundum, in quo demon atrocissimus habitans et responsa plurima prestans pro solo timore ab illis incolis excolebatur. Siquidem interdum visibiliter seipsum ostendens, quasi tyrannus aliquis vultu et voce terribilis apparebat atque miserrimos homines illos minis ac verberibus illatis ad suam reverenciam imperiose cogebat. Preterea morbos, clades, sterilitates atque similia ex divina permissione inducens frequenter, terrorem suum super infidelibus populis incuciebat. Si quando vero ab huiusmodi malignacionibus cessare aut micius agere videbatur, magni beneficii largitor tenebatur.  Statutis quoque diebus in anno soliti erant undique ad phanum ipsius sollempniter convenire et pollutis sacrificiis participando convirare. Aliam vero e regione mensam laucioribus epulis copiose refertam seorsum apponebant, que videlicet omnia spiritus ille gulosus plerumque adveniens avida voracitate invisibiliter absorbebat. Cumque universa consumpta conspicerent, tunc et ipsi letanter epulabantur, quia crapulanti numinis gratiam iam secure prestolabantur.  Quadam itaque die, convenientibus in unum, contigit et interesse prefatum illum iuvenem christianum. Et ecce repente apparuit ibi notifer ille spiritus imperialibus ornamentis fantastice redimitus, qui residens in throno suo in superbia et in abusione concionabatur ad illos. Porro miserandi homines illi tanta demonis impudencia ludificati in aspectu eius obstupescebant et execrando prodigio divinitatis honorem impendebant. At vero iuvenis christianus cum talia cerneret, intelligens esse diabolum in angelum lucis transfiguratum, exhorruit a facie maligni et invocans nomen Christi adhibita pectori suo manu signum crucis latenter impressit. Neque enim audebat se propter gentilium multitudinem in fronte signare. Ferum tamten spiritus nequam quae facta fuerant in abscondito linceis oculis deprehendens materna iuvenis lingua allocutus est eum dicens: Eia, perfide christiane, decito mihi, quid est, quod in abscondito machinaris? Ut quid nunc in pectore tuo operiente te pallio crucem illam idibilem figurasti? Numquid etiam de phano meo eicere me queris? Ex quo venisti ad terram meam, ego inde exivi ac fugiendo crucem tuam usque nunc in pelago latitavi et nunc tandem sero reversus, ne pateris me a facie crucis tue saltem in delubris meis habere refugium? Nunc enim saturatus epulis meis armatus es contra me signaculis tuis iterumque me de statione mea tanquam proditor impius violenter expellis. Cum ergo barbari illi homines hanc vocem demonis audirent et minime loquelam intelligerent, satis superque mirabantur, quid diceret aut cui loqueretur. At vero iuvenis audiens et intelligens pavidus in turba latitabat, quia fragilis adhuc et fide tenellus teneri ab infidelibus atque ad supplicium protrahi metuebat. Disparente autem demone solutoque conventu cum grandi admiracione recessit et ex hiis, quae viderat et audierat, multum in fide christiana profecit. Postmodum autem cum ad natalem patriam repedasset, in supradicto monasterio se convertit, ubi religiose conversando domino militare curavit et ea, quae sibi acciderant, ad multorum edificacionem abbati et fratribus indicavit. Si quid nos ad ista dicemus: Si tanta est virtus et gloria crucifixi, ut ante pusillanimem et modice fidei christianum propter signum crucis et trepide et latenter inpressit, principes tenebrarum ita diffugerent, quid putamus fieret, si viri virtutum et fortes in fide predicatores cum gladio spiritus, quid est verbum Dei, accederent. Et quantas hostium strages darent, quantas gentilium turbas in brevi acquirerent, vere cito cognoscerent de verbo veritatis, quid legitur in psalmo: Cadent a latere tuo mille et d[ecem] m[ilia] a[d] d[exteris] tuis. Et in Levitico: Persequentur quinque de vobis – centum alienos, et centum ex vobis – decem milia. Pro huiusmodi ergo rogandus est dominus messis, ut mittat operarios in messem suam. Messis est enim multa et operarii autem pauci. Verum tamen ipsi pauci, immo ut verius dicam, paucissimi, qui in partibus illis reperiuntur in missis undique; falcibus predicationis cum tanta benedictionis habundantia et animarum fruges Domino colligunt et ut nimia paganorum milia nuper in brevi tempore baptizata cottidie magis ac magis multiplicentur et adeo ut episcopi atque metropolitani in civitatibus plurimis nunc de novo creentur et vinea domini Sabbaoth in populis barbaris, qui vini forsitan nomen antea audierant, vinum tamen non biberant, hodie longe lateque propagetur.

The Introduction of the Christian faith in Slavonia, demons scatter from it with horrible noise, as if defeated in battle by an army, and they are routed and put to flight
Chapter 94 (also Migne, Book 3, Chapter 36)

“In the country of Slavonia, the greater part of which has only recently been converted to Christianity, many Cistercian monasteries have already been founded.  Furthermore, the monks who toil daily there for the Lord on converting the heathens received the power to baptize [them] from the Supreme Pontiff.”

“It happened that some of these brothers, who were invited from certain of the faithful, one day came to one of the neighboring villages, baptizing a multitude of pagans in it, [a village] which had recently received the faith and which and which required a regeneration of grace.”

“And the prior night, before they reached this [village], there is a huge noise to be heard from [that place] and a great roar, as if [made] by a great army resonating during the entire night time in the streets and squares of that town; seemingly, as if another army made a powerful assault and finally defeated [the first] from the back and left in a great upheaval.  Moreover, the locals fleeing heard the noise and flights sounds [but] not seeing anyone became dismayed and greatly frightened not knowing what this new thing was or what malice [?] it portended.”

“The next day the monks who arrived at the village baptized there throngs [of people] of [men and women].  But at this time it was made known to the faithful that the noises of the prior night were nothing other than legions of demons complaining and fleeing the Lord for they were not able to withstand the angels and the coming of the Holy Spirit.  Truly many are consoled in the presence of the Lord and especially so the newly-baptized who were saved from eternal damnation.”

Christiana fide in Sclavoniam inducta, diffugiunt ex ea daemones cum horrendo strepitu, velut exercitus praelio victi, et fusi ac fugati

In regione Sclavoniae, quae noviter est ad fidem Christianam conversa magna ex parte, plurima jam Cisterciensis Ordinis monasteria constat esse fundata.  Porro monachi illi qui ibidem Domino serviunt, ob quotidianam conversionem gentilium baptizandi potestatem a sumno pontifice acceperunt.  Factum est autem ut aliqui. de fratribus illis, a quibusdam fidelibus invitati, statuta die venirent ad unam de proximis viltis, paganorum multitudinem in ea baptizaturi, quae nuper fide recepta regenerationis gratiam flagitabat.  Praecedenti ita que nocte, antequam illuc pervenissent, auditus est ibi sonus et fremitus ingens, quasi exercitus grandis, toto tempore noctis per vicos et plateas ejusdem villae perstrepentis, qui velut ab alio exercitu forteter impugnatus, tandemque superatus, terga vertere, atque cum magna turbulentia exire videbatur.  Porro homines loci, recedentium strepitum et fugam communiter audientes, et personam aliquam non videntes, stupebant ac metuebant, nimirum ignorantes quae ista novitas esset aut quid boni malive portenderet.  In crastinum autem venientes monachi ad eamdem villam, baptizaverunt ibi promiscui sexus turbam copiosam.  Tunc vero cunctis fidelibus manifeste innotuit quod tumultus ille nocturnus nihil aliud exstitit, nisi daemonum legiones, ab obsessis hominibus increpante Domino fugientes; qui beatorum angelorum praesentiam, et sancti Spiritus adventum sustinere non poterant.  De qua videlicet re multum in Domino consolatu sunt universi, praecipue vero neophyti illi qui ab immunda damnatione fuerant liberati.

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May 15, 2017

Modelski & the Franks

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You ask where is the rest of the Teofil Modelski’s article (parts 1 & 2 being here) on the Opusculum‘s Lechia?  (No translation… too much of a pain in the ass).

Well, here is part 3 of 5:

Here is part 4:

And finally part 5:

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May 12, 2017

On the Illyrian Veneti of Herodotus’ Book I

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In addition to the passage in Book V, 9, 2 that we discussed here, Herodotus also mentions the Veneti (Eneti) in Book I, 196, 1.  Here is that passage (Godley edition) which comes in the context of a discussion of Babylonians:

“This is the equipment of their persons. I will now speak of their established customs. The wisest of these, in our judgment, is one which I have learned by inquiry is also a custom of the Eneti in Illyria. It is this: once a year in every village all the maidens as they attained marriageable age were collected and brought together into one place, with a crowd of men standing around.”

“Then a crier would display and offer them for sale one by one, first the fairest of all; and then, when she had fetched a great price, he put up for sale the next most attractive, selling all the maidens as lawful wives. Rich men of Assyria who desired to marry would outbid each other for the fairest; the ordinary people, who desired to marry and had no use for beauty, could take the ugly ones and money besides;”

“for when the crier had sold all the most attractive, he would put up the one that was least beautiful, or crippled, and offer her to whoever would take her to wife for the least amount, until she fell to one who promised to accept least; the money came from the sale of the attractive ones, who thus paid the dowry of the ugly and the crippled. But a man could not give his daughter in marriage to whomever he liked, nor could one that bought a girl take her away without giving security that he would in fact make her his wife.”

“And if the couple could not agree, it was a law that the money be returned. Men might also come from other villages to buy if they so desired.”

“This, then, was their best custom; but it does not continue at this time; they have invented a new one lately [so that the women not be wronged or taken to another city]; since the conquest of Babylon made them afflicted and poor, everyone of the people that lacks a livelihood prostitutes his daughters.”

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May 10, 2017

The Legend of Walther and Wisuav

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We have previously presented some of the legendary tales from the various chronicles of the Slavs.  These included the legends of:

Another legend is that of Walther of Tyniec (and Wisuav of Wislica) found in the Greater Poland Chronicle (also known as Boguphal’s Chronicle).

Tyniec is a former village about seven miles southwest of Cracow center (it’s now been incorporated into Cracow).

Tyniec Benedictine Abbey

Wislica is a town on the River Nida northeast of Cracow on the road to Sandomierz.

Wislica fort – courtesy of the local museum and of Google

This story bears a resemblance to the various Walther sagas of Western Europe.  In most Polish versions the protagonist is referred to as Walgierz.  The curious fact that this should have been Walcerz but may have been influenced by a reference in the Chronicle of Regino of Pruem speaking of a certain Walager we’ve already discussed here – where we also pointed out the identification of that Walager with Theodoric the Great.

That last one’s “adventures” became the adventures of  Didrik af Bern (Dietrich of Verona) and also happen to contain a bridal drama.  Curiously, the Dietrich von Bern saga contains references to Osantrix the king of the Wilzen (Wilzenkoenig) or Osantrix von Wilzenland which is clearly a reference to the Veleti.  The fact that we know from Ptolemy that: “Back from the Ocean, near the Venedicus bay, the Veltae dwell, above whom are the Ossi” makes these references all the more curious.

Another curious fact is that Thomas Nugent in his “The History of Vandalia” mentions no less than three Vandalic king by the name Wisislaus (an idea of uncertain provenance). This is the same name as Wisuav or Wislaw.

Some Slavs, some Germans

About some of the similarities between all these tales you can read in “Origin and Development of the Walther Saga” by Marion Dexter Learned PMLA Vol. 7, No. 1, The Saga of Walther of Aquitaine (1892), pp. 131-195 (published by the Modern Language Association).

Here is the tale – for ease of use we use the name spelling Walther and Wisuav.

The Legend of Walther and Wisuav
Or Of the Betrayal of the Town of Wislica

“In those days there was in the kingdom of the Lechites a very famous town, surrounded by tall walls, called Wislica.  Back then, in heathen times, its lord was Wisuav the Fair who was descended from the clan of King Pompilius [Popiel].  A certain lord, who also came from the same family, great in strength, by the name of Walther the Strong, who in Polish was called Walther the Comely and who held the town of Tyniec in the vicinity of Cracow where these days there is the abbey of Saint Benedict founded by Casimir the Monk [Kazimierz Mnich or Casimir the Restorer – Odnowiciel] the king of Poles, that is of Lechites, took him [that is Walther took Wisuav captive] in some campaign, threw him into prison and ordered that he be held under close guard in the depths of the Tyniec tower.”

Wisuav was in the one on the right

“This Walther had for his wife a certain noble lady, by the name of Helgunda, the betrothed of the son of a certain duke of the Alemans and who was also the daughter of the king of the Franks; whom, as they say, he secretly spirited away to Poland at great personal danger.”

“For when the son of that certain duke of the Alemans – in order to learn good manners – was being raised at the court of the Frankish king – the father of the aforesaid Helgunda – Walther, a man who was clever and crafty, seeing that the princess Helgunda returned the feelings of the son of the duke of Alemannia, on a certain night climbed the walls of the town, paid off the guard such that this one should not reveal him [or his name] and sang so loud and sweet that the princess awoke and hearing the sweet sound of his voice, came out of bed and, together with other maidens, forgetting about her nightly rest, she listened for as long as the singer intoned his melodious voice.”

Walther’s serenades were irresistible

“And when morning came, Helgunda ordered to bring in front of her the guard and urgently queried him who it had been [that gave the concert].  This one, did not dare to name Walther, assuring her that he knew not who the singer was.  But when the young Walther during the two subsequent nights, from a hidden place proceeded as before [to serenade], Helgunda unable to withstand this, with threats and intimidation tried to force the guard to reveal the singer[‘s name].  And because he nevertheless refused to do so, she ordered him put to death.  Thus, when the guard confessed that it had been Walther signing, she burning with hot love, succumbed completely to his [Walther’s] wishes, completely spurning the Aleman prince.”

Walther & Helgunda’s escape

“The Aleman prince seeing thus that Helgunda had foully rejected him and that in his place in the game of love she chose Walther, burning with great wrath at Walther returned to his father, and had all the crossings over the river Rhine be held and guarded such that no one should traverse it without paying a gold price for the ferrying across.  And when some time had passed, Walther and Helgunda see an opportunity to flee and escape upon the long-awaited day.  But when, in accordance with their plans, they arrive at the Rhine shore, the boat masters demand a golden price for the crossing but receiving it, they refuse the crossing until the Aleman prince should arrive.  Seeing that the delay brings danger, [Walther] gets on a mighty horse, orders Helgunda to sit behind him and spurring the horse into the river, crosses it faster than an arrow.  And when he had left Rhine somewhat behind, he hears behind him the pursuing Aleman’s voice: ‘Foul traitor!  So, you have skulked away with the king’s daughter and crossed the Rhine without paying the duties!  Halt now and stand so that I can duel you – and he that should triumph shall keep the horse, the arms and too Helgunda.'”

“Walther, fearlessly answers as follows: ‘Tis a lie, what you say, for I have given the boatmen their gold and the princess i did not take by force but made her my companion for she willingly wanted to come with me.’  And after these words they boldly strike each other with spears.  And when these shatter, they fight with swords testing their manly prowess.  The Aleman seeing Helgunda stand in front of him, aroused by her glances, forced Walther backwards until, that is,  this one retreating cast his eyes on Helgunda.”

The Aleman proved more of an annoyance than any serious challenge to Walther

“And seeing her he halted, filled both with the greatest shame as well as with limitless love for her.  Regaining his strength he boldly charged at the Aleman and immediately killed him.  Then, taking his horse and arms, he set out home to his fatherland, twice honoured by the happy and  praiseworthy victory [that is, the winning of Helgunda and the defeat of the prince of the Alemani].  Arriving at the town of Tyniec after successfully navigating many adventures in his travels, he spent some time in rest so as to regain his strength.”

“It was there that he learned from the complaints of his people that Wisuav the Fair the duke of Wislica during his [Walther’s] absence caused them certain wrongs.  Having become aware of these, with great regret he challenges Wisuav to avenge them [the wrongs] and eventually he fights him, wins and then, as already, he puts him in chains to be guarded in the dungeon of the Tyniec Castle tower.”

“After some time has passed, he crosses far away lands on military campaigns as is the knightly custom.  And when two years have passed of his absence, Helgunda greatly disturbed by her husband’s absence, felt forced to confide in a certain girl, her confidante, announcing with a downcast face that they are ‘neither wives nor widows’; and by that she meant those [women] who are bound in matrimony with men of an entrepreneurial spirit who seek opportunities for military skirmishes. And her confidante, trying to ease her lady’s miserable wretchedness which she endured so long a time, immediately set aside the shame which comes with betrayal, states that Wisuav, the duke of Wislica [and a man] of a refined appearance and a comely body, beautiful to the eye, sits imprisoned in the tower.”

Usually Helgunda was not so easily impressed but this time was a little different

“And the wretch urges her [Helgunda] to order him removed from the tower during the silence of the night and having satiated herself with the much coveted embraces then to send him back carefully to the tower dungeon.  This one [Helgunda] applauds her confidante’s persuasions, and though frightened of the perilous consequences nevertheless not fearing to wager her life and good name, orders that Wisuav be brought out of the depths of the prison; and upon seeing him she delights in his beauty, filled with great admiration.  And she did not order that he be sent back to the prison dungeon but rather she chose entirely to leave the bed of her own husband and to flee to the town of Wislica with that one with whom she had bonded in friendship and united in an inseparable knot of love. In this manner Wisuav returns to his own town thinking that he had achieved a double victory – though this [victory] in the course of dangerous events was to bring both of them a deadly end.”

“After a short time the returning Walther is asked by his townspeople why is it that, in this moment of [his] joyful return, does Helgunda not rush to his side at the very least to the castle gates.  [It is] from them that he learns how Wisuav, trusting in the help of the guards, carried Helgunda with him.  Himself imbued with terrible wrath, he immediately hurries to Wislica and without fear for himself or his fate in unexpected adventures, he suddenly enters the town of Wislica at a time when Wisuav outside the town was busy on a hunt.”

“Helgunda seeing him in the city rushes quickly towards him and falling face down in front of him she complains that Wisuav kidnapped her by force.  She urges Walther to enter an out of the way part of the dwelling promising that if he so desires, she will forthwith bring Wisuav there so that he [Walther] should seize him.  Trusting this fraudster and ensnared by the deceptive persuasions he enters a fortified chamber, where, due to trickster’s efforts, he falls into Wisuav’s hands.  Joyful are Wisuav and Helgunda, happily applauding this auspicious result which now for the third time brought fortune; they do not ponder how this happiness may come to an end though ones such as these often do happen to be taken by a sad death.  He [Wisuav] did not wish to keep him [Walther] under prison guard but rather he wanted to oppress him with something worse than prison muck.  Instead, he ordered to have him bound in irons to the dining hall’s wall, with arms outstretched, with his neck and feet completely straight.  To the same hall he ordered be brought a bed in which during summer time he and Helgunda would lie devoting themselves to love’s pleasures.”

Walther’s anguish knew no limit

“[But] Wisuav had a sister of his own blood whom no one wanted to take as wife by reason of her ugly looks.  Her watchfulness did Wisuav trust more than that of Walther’s other guards.  But this one greatly sympathizing with Walther’s sufferings, [and] entirely casting aside a maiden’s timidity, asks whether Walther would have her as his wife should she come to his aid in his misfortune by freeing him from his chains.  He solemnly swears and confirms the same with a promise that so long as he should live, he will give her marital love and will not fight with his sword against her brother Wisuav, as per her wishes; and asks her to take his sword from her brother’s bedchamber and to bring it here forth so as to cut away his fetters with it.  [And] she, bringing the sword, then in accordance with Walther’s command cut away the peg at the very end on each of the iron cuffs and the sword she placed between Walther’s back and the wall so that he could remove himself at an opportune moment.  And he waits till noontime of the next day.”

Wisuav’s sister with friends

“And when Wisuav with Helgunda reveled in their embraces in the dining hall bed, Walther, uncustomary, speaks to them with these words: ‘How would you feel, should you gaze upon me in front of your bed, freed from my binds, holding my melodious sword in my hands and threatening to take revenge for [your] crimes?’  At his words, Helgunda’s heart stopped and shivering she spoke to Wisuav: ‘Oh woe my lord!  I had not seen your sword in the bedroom but engrossed by your kisses I forgot to mention this to you.’  At this Wisuav replied: ‘Even had he ten swords to aid him, without the adroitness of smiths he would not be able to rip apart his irons.’  When they so spoke with one another, they note that Walther, free of his chains, jumps forth and brandishing his sword stands by their bed; and soon tossing curses at them, raises his sword hand high and drops WIsuav’s own sword onto them both; this falling cuts both in the middle.  And so each of them ended their miserable life in an even more miserable manner.  And this Helgunda’s tomb, forged in a rock is to this day shown in Wislica town to all those who wish to see it.”

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May 9, 2017

Willibald’s Life Of Saint Boniface

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And speaking of Würzburg.

We have previously discussed Boniface’s comments on Slav matters here, here and here.  Boniface died in 754 but Slavs managed to follow him and make it (once) into the “Life of Boniface” when that work was penned by Willibald about the year 768:

“…Burghardo verotionis parrochiam commendavit in loco qui vocatur Wirzaburg dignitatis officium delegavit, et ecclesias in confiniis Francorum et Saxonum atque Sclavorum suo officio deputavit…”

According to the translator of that work, this WIllibald was not the Willibald of Eichstätt whose own “Life” we already discussed here.  Rather, the author of Saint Boniface’s “Life” (incidentally, the first of such works regarding Boniface) was “a simple priest who had never come into direct contact with Boniface and what he says is based upon the facts that he was able to collect from those who had been Boniface’s disciples.”

Here is that Slavic mention (from Talbot, C. H., trans., The Anglo-Saxon missionaries in Germany; being the lives of SS. Willibrord, Boniface, Sturm, Leoba, and Libuin, together with the Hodoeporicon of St. Willibald and a selection from the correspondence of St. Boniface)

Chapter 8

How throughout his whole life he preached with zeal and how he departed from this world

“During the rule of Carloman all the bishops, priests, deacons, and clerics and everyone of ecclesiastical rank gathered together at the ruler’s instance and held four synodal councils. At these Archbishop Boniface presided, with the consent and support of Carloman and of the metropolitan of the see and city of Mainz. And being a legate of the Roman Church and the Apostolic See, sent as he was by the saintly and venerable Gregory II and later by Gregory III, he urged that the numerous canons and ordinances decreed by these four important and early councils should be preserved in order to ensure the healthy development of Christian doctrine. For as at the Council of Nicaea, held under Constantine Augustus, the errors and blasphemies of Arius were rejected; as under Theodosius the Elder an assembly of one hundred and fifty bishops condemned Macedonius, who denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit; as in the city of Ephesus under Theodosius [II] two hundred bishops excommunicated Nestorius for declaring that there are two Persons in Christ; and as at the Council of Chalcedon an assembly of six hundred and thirty bishops, basing their decision on an earlier one of the fathers, pronounced an anathema against Eutyches, an abbot of Constantinople, and Dioscorus, who defended him, for attacking the foundations of the Catholic faith – So in the Frankish territories, after the eradication of heresy and the destruction of wicked conspirators, he urged that later developments of Christian doctrine and the decrees of the general councils should be received. With this in view there should be a meeting of the bishops in synod each year in accordance with the decree of the aforesaid council of bishops. This holding of synods had fallen into desuetude through the constant fear of war and the hostility and attacks of the surrounding barbarian tribes and through the attempts of hostile enemies to destroy the Frankish realm by violence. They had been forgotten so completely that no one could recall such an assembly’s having taken place within living memory. For it is in the nature of the world to fall into ruin even though it is daily restored, while if no attempt is made to reform it it quickly disintegrates and rushes headlong to its predestined doom. Therefore if in the course of this mortal life means have been discovered to remedy such evils they should be preserved and strongly defended by Catholics and fixed indelibly in the mind. Otherwise human forgetfulness and the enticement of pleasure, both of them instigated by the devil, will prove a stumbling block. For this reason the holy bishop, in his anxiety to deliver his people from the baleful influence of the devil, repeatedly urged Carloman to summon the episcopal synods already mentioned in order that both present and later generations should learn spiritual wisdom and should make the knowledge of Christianity available to all. Only in this way could unsuspecting souls escape being ensnared.”

“After he had set before all ranks of society the accepted norm of the Christian life and made known to them the way of truth, Boniface, now weak and decrepit, showed great foresight both as regards himself and his people by appointing a successor to his see, as ecclesiastical law demands. So, whether he lived or whether he died, the people would not be left without pastors and their ministration. He promoted two men of good repute to the episcopate, Willibald and Burchard, dividing between them the churches that were under his jurisdiction in the land of eastern Franks and on the Bavarian marches. To Willibald he entrusted the diocese of Eichstätt, to Burchard that of Würzburg, putting under his care all the churches within the borders of the Franks, Saxons, and Slavs. Nevertheless, even to the day of his death he did not fail to instruct the people in the way of life.”

“Then Pepin, with the help of the Lord, took over the rule of the kingdom of the Franks as the happy successor to his above-mentioned brother [i.e. Carloman]. When disorders among the people had subsided, he was elevated to the kingship. From the outset he conscientiously carried out the vows he had sworn to the Lord, to put into effect without delay the synodal decrees, and he renewed the canonical institutions which his brother, following the advice of the holy archbishop Boniface, had so dutifully set on foot. He showed the saint every mark of veneration and friendship and obeyed his spiritual precepts. But because the holy man, owing to his physical infirmities, was not able to attend the synodal assemblies, he decided, with the king’s approval and advice, to appoint a suitable person to minister to his flock. To his purpose he appointed Lull, a disciple of outstanding ability, whose duty it would be to continue his instruction to the people. He consecrated him bishop, and committed to his care the inheritance that he had won for Christ by his zealous efforts. Lull was the man who had been his trusted companion on his journeys and who had been closely connected with him both in his sufferings and his consolations…”

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May 6, 2017

Würzburg’s Roots

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The city of Würzburg is perhaps first listed in the Ravenna Cosmography under the name Uburzis.

A bit later (?) (704) the city is mentioned as castellum Virteburch.

Incidentally Solist (which some connect to Hohenzollern) looks much like Soest of which Quazwini says later:

“Schuschit [Soest] is a town in the land of the Slavs.  There lies a salty spring, while there otherwise is no salt in that area.  When the people need salt, they take water from this source, fill with it a pot and set it on a stone oven and make a great fire underneath so that it becomes thick and turbid.  Then it sits until it becomes cold and turns into hard, white salt.  In this way is salt made in all the lands of the Slavs.”

So what is Uburzis?  Oddly, the Polish house spirits Uboże come to mind…

Apparently, when the bishopric at Würzburg was founded (which happened a few decades later in 741) it was permitted to collect taxes from the Franks and the Slavs.  This grant was later reconfirmed in Arnulf of Carinthia’s 889 confirmation of Würzburg’s rights), it was mentioned that it should collect taxes (steora vel osterstuopha) from the Slavs:

decimam tributi, quae de partibus orientalium Franchorum vel de Sclavis ad fiscum dominicum annuatim persolvere solebant, quae secundum illorum linguam steora vel ostarstuopha vocatur, ut de illo tributo sive reditu annis singulis pars decima ad preductum locum persolvatur, sive in melle sive in paltenis seu in alia qualibet redibutione, quae, ut diximus, prius e pagis orientalium Franchorum persolvebatur.  Id est de pago uualdsazzi. et de pago thubargouue. et vuingartuueiba. et iagasgeuui. mulahgeui. necchargeuui. et chochangeuui et rangeuui et gollahgeuui. et iphgevui. hasagevui. et grapfeld. et dullifeld. salageuvi. uueringeuui. gozfeld. et badanahgeuui. et decimam de fiscis dominicis. Id est de ingulunheim. reotfeld in rangevue. roudeshof in folhfeldon. ad chruzinaha et neristein. et omuntesstat. et albsteti. et chuningeshofa et sundrunhofa. et gollahofa. et berenheim. et ikilenheim, et uuielantesheim. et roumfeld. Gouvmheim in gozfeldon. et drozoltesheimhalazesstat in ratenzgovue, chungeshofe. et item chuningeshofe. et salz. et hamulunburcg. et iphahofa et thetilabach. et in blaihfeld. et heiligbrunno. et louisin.  In his fiscis et uillis dominicis. seu in predictis pagis….

Pippin is presumably Pepin the Short who would have been around in 741.  What secundum illorum lingua means we will let you guess. Maybe, it means German – as opposed to Latin – but the Latin language would not have been the language of the illorum

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May 3, 2017

On the Errors of the Franks

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A reader asked a question about the so-called Opusculum contra Francos: is it true that the word Lechia appears there (meaning Poland) and is true that this is dated to the ninth century?  Or, as someone told him, was this really written in 1101?

Ok… so the answer is “no one really knows”.  Satisfied?

Well, there is one thing that is probably not true.  It’s very unlikely that we can pinpoint the Opusculum to 1101 (any such precising dating should be immediately suspect).

But let’s start at the beginning…

The Opusculum is a Byzantine polemic against the version of Christianity practiced by the Roman Latin Church that is, the “Franks” (since the Franks had by then taken over what was left of the Latins and the Popes were anointing Frankish emperors).  It is one of a number of such works and similar works also exist on the Catholic side directed against the Byzantines, of course.

Photius enjoying some morning foot kissing

The Opusculum has traditionally been ascribed to Photius and, if you believe that, then it is a work of Photius.  If you do not, then it is a work of Pseudo-Photius (meaning “we don’t know who wrote it but it wasn’t Photius but may as well refer to Photius since people think he wrote it”).

Photius or Phōtios or Φώτιος (circa 810 – circa 893) was the Patriarch of Constantinople (who had a hand in a schism now called by his own name (!) the “Photian Schism” of 863-867.

Apparently, the Opusculum was translated from Greek to Latin by Hugo Etherianus in 1178 and again in 1252 by the Dominican Bartholomew of Constantinople, who appended it to his Tractatus contra Graecos.  Presumably, the Latins needed to know what the Greeks’ arguments were in order to counter them effectively (the level of the polemic in the document itself is rather low with bitching about dress and hairstyle mascara ding as theological arguments).

In any event, this means that the Opusculum was written before 1178.

The “recent fame” of the Opusculum is due to Zachariae‘s edition of 1839 and then to Joseph Cardinal Hergenröther (1824 – 1890), Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives who was also, in addition to being an archivist, a church historian and canonist.  Hergenröther was interested in the Schism with the Byzantine Church and in the role played in that by Photius.  In addition to a number of articles he published the following on Photius:

  • Photii Constantinopolitani Liber de Spiritus Sancti mystagogia (Regensburg (Ratisbonae), 1857)
  • Photius Patriarch von Constantinopel, sein Leben, seine Schriften, und das griechische Schisma (3 volumes, Regensburg, 1867-69)
  • Monumenta Græca ad Photium ejusque historiam pertinentia (Regensburg, 1869)

His work was also instrumental in helping Migne put together his version of Photius (P.G., CI-CIV) (1860).

So here is the Hergenröther version of the Opusculum from his Monumenta Græca ad Photium ejusque historian pertinentia:

As can be seen, Lechia does appear in argument 24 (dealing with how long one ought to fast – in the East they do better than in the West, etc.).  What this actually says is:

“The forty day fast is undertaken in their countries and among the surrounding peoples unevenly: thus, Lechia fasts for nine weeks and among the others, some fast for eight and some for more whereas others fewer [weeks].  The Italians only six.”

(presumably their dolce vita puts limits on their piety)

Note also the mention of the Venetians/Veneti/Slavs? at the beginning of the Opusculumgermanikoi, molphinoi, benetikoi

In volume 3 of Photius Patriarch von Constantinopel Hergenröther discusses the Opusculum and concludes that it is not a work of Photius because (among other reasons) Lechia must mean Poland and Poland was not Christianized until the second half of the tenth century so people in Poles can’t possibly have kept a Christian fast in the ninth century.  Of course, we can’t use the same logic if the question on the table is instead when did Poland begin to be called Lechia without running into circular reasoning problems.

But we can say that Hergenröther’s logic is based on two crucial assumptions, of course:

  • that Lechia must refer to Poland (likely but not entirely certain) or, for that matter, to all of Poland (that is very unclear), and
  • that a country is either Christian or it is not (this is doubtful and, as we know from the “Life of Methodius” that the Byzantine Christians (Photius’ buddy Methodius) were already threatening conversion of the “duke in Visla” just as the Franks were threatening Slavic lands to the West).

Following Hergenröther a pamphlet was issued on the work by the Czech priest František Snopek (1853-1921) in 1908 and then a more extensive article was written by Teofil Modelski (1881-1967) under the title of “Pseudo-Photius’ Lechia” (Lechia Pseudo-Focyusza)  in 1914.

parts 1 & 2 (of 5)

You can read all the arguments in those works (no, we won’t translate it all – too much work).  In the end, no one really knows.  It’s certainly possible that Lechia had been used in the ninth century.  But even if not, the use of the term (assuming it refers to Poland) is still one of the earliest uses of the term for Poland (predating Kadlubek).

The one thing that can be said is that the Opusculum probably started out in Photius’ “intellectual circle” – perhaps with Photius himself – and that it was likely not written in 1101.  1101 is an error by someone who misread the number to mean a year – instead it is the number of one of the manuscripts housing the Opusculum – Vat. gr. 1101.

First page of the Opusculum from Vat. gr. 1101 (note Benetikoi three lines down from the “1”)

Note that Hergenröther himself dated the Opusculum to somewhere in 1054-1100.

As regards the word lach the best idea on this that we’ve seen was Piotr Czarkowski’s and later Jan Karłowicz’s who said it just  means a “large forest” (and so it more apt than pole meaning “field” since Poland was covered by forests back in the 10th century.  For other examples of s > ch (or vice versa?):

  • piasek > piach
  • las(ek) > lach
  • pas(ek) > pach
  • laska > lacha

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May 1, 2017

Of Liscus & the Haedui, Ουελται, uelhedi, Welatabi

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The name of the tribe Veleti has historically presented a problem for those historians who insisted on a relatively late (6th century A.D.) appearance of the Slavs in Europe.  They are one of the first tribes to be mentioned as definitely Slavic.  In the Royal Frankish Annals under the year 789 we read:

“The Wilzi have always been hostile to the Franks and used to hate and harass their neighbors who were either subject to the Franks or allied with them and provoke them into war… Entering the country of the Wilzi [Charlemagne] ordered everything to be laid waste with fire and sword.  But that tribe, although warlike and confident in numbers, was not able to withstand the attack of the royal army for very long.  Therefore, as soon as he came to the city of Dragawit, who stands above the other kinglets of the Wilzi in age and lineage Dragawit at once with all his people came forth from the city, gave the hostages he was ordered to provide, and promised by oath to keep faith with the king and the Franks.  The other magnates and chieftains of the Slavs followed suit and submitted to the authority of the king.”

The same information is repeated by a number of other annalists (see here).

Similarly, Einhard in his Life of Charlemagne says of these events:

“After the insurrection [of duke Tasillo of the Bavarians who confronted Charlemagne at the River Lech in 787], [the king] declared war against the Slavs, whom we normally refer to as the Wilzi, but who are properly called Welatabi in their own language.  In that war the Saxons fought as auxiliaries alongside the other peoples who were ordered to march in the king’s army, but the obedience [of the Saxons] was insincere and lacking in complete commitment.  That war came about because they [the Slavs] were constatntly harassing and attacking the Abotrites, who had once allied themselves with the Franks.  They [the Slavs] were not inclined to listen to the commands [of Charlemagne]…” 

and also:

“A certain gulf [i.e., the Baltic] with an unknown length and a width no more than a hundred miles wide and in many places [much] narrower runs from the western ocean towards the east. Many peoples live around this sea.  In fact, the Danes and the Swedes, whom we call Northmen, live along the northern shore [of the sea].  The Slavs, Estonians and other peoples live along the southern shore.  The Welatabi were the most prominent of these peoples and it was against them that the  king now took up war.  He beat them and brought them under his control in the one and only campaign he personally waged [against them], that from that point on they never thought of refusing to obey his commands.”

Finally, we hear that:

“… [Charlemagne] subordinated and made tributary all the rough and uncivilized peoples inhabiting Germany between the Rhine and Vistula rivers, the ocean and the Danube.  They almost all speak a similar language, but are very different from each other in customs and appearance.  Among these peoples the Welatabi, Sorbs, Obotrites and Bohemians are of special importance, and he came into armed conflict with all of them.  Other peoples [living there], who far outnumbered them, simply surrendered.”

The problem is that the name Welatabi appears much earlier – already in Ptolemy’s Geography where we read of the Ουελται:

“Back from the Ocean, near the Venedicus bay, the Veltae dwell, above whom are the Ossi; then more toward the north, the Carbones and toward the east are the Careotae and the Sali; below whom are the Gelones…”

The gap between the 2nd century of Ptolemy and the late 8th century of the Royal Annals and (later yet) of Einhard seems rather wide.  So were the later Veleti the same as the Ουελται?

It turns out that there is another source attesting the existence of a tribe by that name.  This is the Cosmography of Pseudo-Aethicus.  It begins with the words:

“Lectionum pervigili cura comperimus, senatum populumque Romanum totius mundi dominos, domitores orbis et praesules…”

This text dates back to the late 4th century or 5th century and had initially been thought of as the Cosmography of Aethicus Ister (more on that work here) but later had been instead ascribed to Julius Honorius or Julius Orator.

This work was first published in 1575 by Josias Simmler:

And, thereafter reprinted a number of times usually as part of compilations of latin texts (in 1577, 1626, 1646).  In the 19th century it was analyzed, among others, by Pertz in 1853 and published by Alexander Riese in 1878 in his Geographi latino minores.

Riese observes that although the name appears as vel Haedui, a second hand seems to have corrected (?) the same to uelhedi.

The work appears, among others, in the Vienna Codex (Vindobonensis 181) and in the Codex of the Laurentian Library (Laurentianus 89?).

What is even more interesting is that the Haedui were a Gallic people whose name is normally written these days as Aedui. The Aedui were attacked by the Sequani with the help of Ariovistus at the Battle of Magetobriga but later joined the Gallic revolt. They are known for the only druid whose name is attested: Divitiacus or DIviciacus.  They are also known for a magister named Liscus who is mentioned in Caesar’s Civil War (Caes. Gal. 1.16-1.18) (in McDevitte’s translation):

“Meanwhile, Caesar kept daily importuning the Aedui for the corn which they had promised in the name of their state; for, in consequence of the coldness (Gaul, being as before said, situated toward the north), not only was the corn in the fields not ripe, but there was not in store a sufficiently large quantity even of fodder: besides he was unable to use the corn which he had conveyed in ships up the river Saone , because the Helvetii, from whom he was unwilling to retire had diverted their march from the Saone . The Aedui kept deferring from day to day, and saying that it was being collected-brought in-on the road.” When he saw that he was put off too long, and that the day was close at hand on which he ought to serve out the corn to his soldiers;-having called together their chiefs, of whom he had a great number in his camp, among them Divitiacus and Liscus who was invested with the chief magistracy (whom the Aedui style the Vergobretus, and who is elected annually and has power of life or death over his countrymen), he severely reprimands them, because he is not assisted by them on so urgent an occasion, when the enemy were so close at hand, and when [corn] could neither be bought nor taken from the fields, particularly as, in a great measure urged by their prayers, he had undertaken the war; much more bitterly, therefore does he complain of his being forsaken.”

“Then at length Liscus, moved by Caesar’s speech, discloses what he had hitherto kept secret:-that there are some whose influences with the people is very great, who, though private men, have more power than the magistrates themselves: that these by seditions and violent language are deterring the populace from contributing the corn which they ought to supply; [by telling them] that, if they can not any longer retain the supremacy of Gaul, it were better to submit to the government of Gauls than of Romans, nor ought they to doubt that, if the Romans should overpower the Helvetii, they would wrest their freedom from the Aedui together with the remainder of Gaul. By these very men, [said he], are our plans and whatever is done in the camp, disclosed to the enemy; that they could not be restrained by him: nay more, he was well aware, that though compelled by necessity, he had disclosed the matter to Caesar, at how great a risk he had done it; and for that reason, he had been silent as long as he could.” 

“Caesar perceived that by this speech of Liscus, Dumnorix, the brother of Divitiacus, was indicated; but, as he was unwilling that these matters should be discussed while so many were present, he speedily dismisses: the council, but detains Liscus: he inquires from him when alone, about those things which he had said in the meeting. He [Liscus] speaks more unreservedly and boldly. He [Caesar] makes inquiries on the same points privately of others, and discovered that it is all true; that “Dumnorix is the person, a man of the highest daring, in great favor with the people on account of his liberality, a man eager for a revolution: that for a great many years he has been in the habit of contracting for the customs and all the other taxes of the Aedui at a small cost, because when he bids, no one dares to bid against him. By these means he has both increased his own private property, and amassed great means for giving largesses; that he maintains constantly at his own expense and keeps about his own person a great number of cavalry, and that not only at home, but even among the neighboring states, he has great influence, and for the sake of strengthening this influence has given his mother in marriage among the Bituriges to a man the most noble and most influential there; that he has himself taken a wife from among the Helvetii, and has given his sister by the mother’s side and his female relations in marriage into other states; that he favors and wishes well to the Helvetii on account of this connection; and that he hates Caesar and the Romans, on his own account, because by their arrival his power was weakened, and his brother, Divitiacus, restored to his former position of influence and dignity: that, if any thing should happen to the Romans, he entertains the highest hope of gaining the sovereignty by means of the Helvetii, but that under the government of the Roman people he despairs not only of royalty, but even of that influence which he already has.” Caesar discovered too, on inquiring into the unsuccessful cavalry engagement which had taken place a few days before, that the commencement of that flight had been made by Dumnorix and his cavalry (for Dumnorix was in command of the cavalry which the Aedui had sent for aid to Caesar); that by their flight the rest of the cavalry were dismayed. “

Thus, we either found the original Veleti or at least found the source of Wincenty Kadlubek‘s inspiration for his stories about Caesar and Leszek.

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April 28, 2017

Pomponius Mela’s Chorography

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In addition, to the sources that explicitly mention the Slavs under that specific name (and to sources on the Veneti and on the Suevi) we wanted to showcase some sources on the various tribes in the area that may or may not include ancestors of the Slavs but that deal generally with the geographies of interest where Slavs may indeed be “hiding” under other names.  These sources generally relate to the ancient world predating the appearance of Slavs as Slavs (though not always as in Evagrius) but we think they give valuable information and hints.  We’ve previously discussed some Roman sources here.  We now continue with these interesting works starting with Pomponius Mela.

Although Pomponius Mela‘s (in his De Chorographia) does not mention the Slavs under that name, he does provide an extensive description of the world and being the first major Roman geographer (Strabo was Greek in origin) his work is of some interest.  We’ve mentioned it before (as, for example, here) but hadn’t really delved into the “Chorography”.  We now include all the possible sections of it that could even remotely relate to Slavs or their ancestors.  The translation (including the notes) is primarily that of Frank E. Romer, a professor at East Carolina University.  This translation is the first one apparently since Arthur Golding’s 1585 effort (!) which we also include but only for Germania and Sarmatia (after the Romer version).  The pictures are from a 1540 version of the same work (also in English it seems) from the British Library.

We highlighted interesting tribal names, place names and passages whether or not they have something to do with the Slavs.  Notice too the appearance of passages that probably came from Herodotus (for example, regarding the Neuri or Budini).

Book I
Around Our Sea – from the Pillars of Hercules to the End of Asia

1. A description of the known world is what I set out to give, a difficult task and one hardly suited to eloquence, since it consists chiefly in names of peoples and places and in their fairly puzzling arrangement. To trace this arrangement completely is a time-consuming, rather than a welcome, subject, but nevertheless a very worthwhile thing to consider and understand. It repays the effort of those who give it attention – at least by the very act of contemplating it, if not by the richness of this supplicant’s natural talent.

2. I should, however, say more elsewhere and with greater preciseness.  Now let me address the things that are most unambiguous, as they all certainly will be, even in a summary treatment. To start with, in fact, let me untangle what the shape of the whole is, what its greatest parts are, what the condition of its parts taken one at a time is, and how they are inhabited; then, back to the borders and coasts of all lands [a] as they exist to the interior and on the seacoast, [b] to the extent that the sea enters them and washes up around them, and [c] with those additions that, in the nature of the regions and their inhabitants, need to be recorded. So that this outline can be known and grasped more easily, its full extent will be revisited in a little more depth.

The Shape of the Whole

3. Whatever all this is, therefore, on which we have bestowed the name of world and sky, it is a single unity and embraces itself and all things with a single ambit. It differs in its parts. Where the sun rises is designated formally as east or sunrise; where it sinks, as west or sunset; where it begins its descent, south; in the opposite direction, north.

4. In the middle of this unity the uplifted earth is encircled on all sides by the sea. In the same way, the earth also is divided from east to west into two halves,3 which they term hemispheres, and it is differentiated by five horizontal zones. Heat makes the middle zone unlivable, and cold does so to the outermost ones. The remaining two habitable zones have the same annual seasons, but not at the same time. The Antichthones inhabit one, we the other. The chorography of the former zone is unknown because of the heat of the intervening expanse, and the chorography of the latter is now to be described.

The Three Continents

5. This zone stretches from east to west and, because it is situated this way, is somewhat longer than it is wide at its widest point. It is entirely surrounded by Ocean, and from Ocean it allows four seas to enter – one from the north, from the south two, a fourth from the west. Those other seas will be recounted in their own places.

6. This last one, at first narrow and not more than ten miles wide, breaks into the land mass and penetrates it. Then, spreading in length and width, it pushes back the shores, which recede to an impressive degree, but when those same shores almost come together at the opposite end, the sea is reduced to a space so constricted that the opening is less than a mile wide. From there it spreads out again, but very moderately, and again it proceeds into a space even more constricted than the previous one. After the sea is received by this space, its size increases greatly again, and it is connected to a huge swamp, but only by a tiny aperture. The whole sea, both where it comes in and as far as it reaches, is called by a single name, Our Sea [Mare Nostrum].

7. We call the narrows and the entranceway of the incoming water the Straight [Lat. fretum], but the Greeks call it the Channel [Grk. porthmos].  Wherever that sea extends, it gets different names in different places. Where it is constricted for the first time, it is called the Hellespont [Dardanelles]; then Propontis [Sea of Marmara] where it spreads out; where it compresses itself again, the Thracian Bosphorus [Karadeniz Bogazi/Bosporus]; where it widens again, the Pontus Euxinus [Black Sea].  Where it comes into contact with the swamp, it is called the Cimmerian Bosphorus [Kerchenskiy Proliv/Strait of Kerch]. The swamp itself is called Maeotis [Sea of Azov].

8. By this sea and by two famous rivers, the Tanals [Don] and the Nile, the whole earth is divided into three parts. The Tanais, descending from north to south, flows down almost into the middle of Maeotis, and from the opposite direction the Nile flows down into the sea. Those lands that lie from the Strait to those rivers, on the one side we call Africa, on the other Europe. Whatever is beyond those rivers is Asia.

Asia

9. Ocean, differing by name as by position, abuts Asia from three directions: the Eastern Ocean from the east, from the south the Indian, from the north the Scythian Ocean. Asia itself, reaching eastward with a huge and continuous coastline, empties its rivers on this end over a coast as wide as Europe, Africa, and the sea that extends between them. Then, after its coastline has advanced uninterrupted for some distance, it lets in the Arabian [Red] and the Persian Seas from what we call the Indian Ocean, and from the Scythian Ocean it lets in the Caspian. Therefore, being narrower where it lets them in, Asia expands again and becomes as wide as it had been. Then as soon as it arrives at its own limit and the boundaries it shares with other lands, the middle of the western edge is received by our waters; the rest of it goes by one horn to the Nile, by the other to the Tanais.

10. Asia’s coast descends in banks with the bed of the Nile River into the sea, and for a long time it stretches out its shores in conformity with that sea’s advance. Then the coastline directly confronts the sea as the sea approaches. The shoreline extends, for the first time, in a curve with a huge sweep. After that, it again curves obliquely back to the Bosphorus.  After repeatedly curving to the Pontic side, Asia stretches in a crosswise line as far as the entrance of the Maeotis, and, hugging the edge of the very Maeotis all the way to the Tanais, it becomes the riverbank where the Tanais is located.

11. We are told that the first humans in Asia, starting from the east, are the Indians, the Seres [Lat., Silk People], and the Scyths. The Seres inhabit more or less the middle of the eastern part.  The Indians and the Scyths inhabit the extremities, both peoples covering a broad expanse and spreading to the ocean not at this point only. For the Indians also look south and for a long time have been occupying the shore of the Indian Ocean with continuous nations, except insofar as the heat makes it uninhabitable. The Scyths look north too, and they possess the littoral of the Scythian Ocean all the way to the Caspian Gulf, except where they are forestalled by the cold.

12. Next to the Indians is Ariane, then Aria and Cedrosis and Persis up to the Persian Gulf. The Persian peoples surround this gulf; the Arabs surround the other one named earlier.  After these peoples, what remains up to Africa belongs to the Aethiopians. In the former place the Caspiani, next to the Scyths, surround the Caspian Gulf. Beyond them, the Amazons are said to be found, and beyond them, the Hyperboreans.

13. Many different nations inhabit the interior of the land. The Gandari, Pariani, Bactri, Sugdiani, Pharmacotrophi, Chomarae, Choamani, Propanisadae, and Dahae are found beyond the Scyths and the Scythian deserts. On the shores of the Caspian Gulf are found the Comari, Massagetae, Cadusi, Hyrcani, and Hiberi. Beyond the Amazons and Hyperboreans are found the Cimmerians, Cissianti, Achaei, Georgians, Moschi, Cercetae, Phoristae, and Arimphaei. Where its expanse protrudes into Our Seas are found the Matiani, Tibarani, and – better-known names – the Medes, Armenians, Commagenes, Murimeni, Eneti, Cappadocians, Gallo-Greeks, Lycaones, Phrygians, Isaurians, Lydians, and Syro-Cilicians.

14. Again, of these latter nations that face south, the same ones that hold the interior hold the shores all the way to the Persian Gulf. Beyond the Caspian Gulf are the Parthians and Assyrians, beyond the Persian Gulf are the Babylonians, and beyond the Aethiopians are the Aegyptians. The Aegyptians likewise possess the lands adjacent to the banks of the Nile River and Our Sea. Then Arabia, with its narrow coastline, is contiguous with the shores that follow. From there, as far as that bend we described above, is Syria. On that very bend is Cilicia, but, in addition, Lycia and Pamphylia, Caria, Ionia, Aeolis, and the Troad all the way up to the Hellespont. From there the Bithynians are found up to the Thracian Bosphorus. Around the Pontus are a number of peoples, with one boundary or another, but all with one name, the Pontici. Beside the Maeotic Lake are found the Maeotici; beside the Tanais, the Sauromatae.

15. For terminal points Europe has the Tanais, the Maeotis, and the Pontus in the east; in the west the Atlantic; to the north the Britannic Ocean. Its coastline is the form of the littoral from the TanaIs to the Hellespont. Europe is not only opposite to the facing shores of Asia but also similar to them [a] where it is a bank of the aforesaid river, [b] where it brings the bend of the Swamp back to the curve of the Pontus, and [c] where it lies beside Propontis and Hellespont with its shore.

16. From there to the Strait, now sweepingly receding, now protruding, the European littoral makes three very large gulfs and projects into the sea with the same number of long extensions. On the other side of the Strait, the Atlantic coast runs up quite irregularly to the west, particularly its middle portion. To the north it extends, practically speaking, as if in a straight line, except where once or twice it is pulled back in by means of a deep recess.

17. The sea that it takes in with its first gulf is called the Aegean. The one it takes in through the next opening is called the Ionian Sea, but its interior part is the Adriatic. Finally, the one that we regard as the Tuscan Sea, the Greeks regard as the Tyrrhenian Sea.

18. The first nation, from the Tanais more or less to the middle of the Pontic littoral, is Scythia (not the one already mentioned).  From here Thrace stretches into part of the Aegean, and Macedonia is joined to it. Then Greece protrudes and divides the Aegean from the Ionian Sea. Illyria occupies the coast of the Adriatic. Between the Adriatic itself and the Tuscan Sea Italy juts out. In the innermost part of the Tuscan Sea is Gaul; on the farther side is Spain.

19. Spain stretches, with differently situated coastlines, to the west and also for a long time to the north. Then Gaul again extends for a long way, and it reaches from our shores all the way up to this point. After Gaul the Germans reach as far as the Sarmatae, and they to Asia…

Mauretania

25. It has been stated earlier that the Atlantic is the ocean that girds the earth on the west. From here – for those traveling into Our Sea – Spain is on the left, Mauretania on the right. The former is the first part of Europe, the latter of Africa. The eastern end of the Mauretanian coast is the Mulucha [Moulouya] River. Its head (and starting point), however, is the promontory that the Greeks call Ampelusia [Cape Spartel]; the Africans call that promontory by another name, but one that means the same thing.

26. On it is the sacred Cave of Hercules, and beyond the cave is Tinge [Tangiers], a very old town founded, as they say, by Antaeus.  A proof of their claim exists, a huge shield cut from elephant hide, one that, because of its size, is not easy to wield if anyone today were to use it. The locals consider it as true that the shield was made by the famous giant [that is Antaeus].  They pass the story down, and for that reason they pay him cult in an exceptional way.

27. Next comes a very high mountain, facing the one that Spain raises up on the opposite shore. The one on this side they call Abila [Jabal Musa], the one on the far side Calpe [Gibraltar]; they call them together the Pillars of Hercules. Oral tradition goes on to give the story of the name: Hercules himself separated the mountains, which had once been joined in a continuous ridge, and Ocean, previously shut out by the mole of the mountains, was let into those places that it now inundates. On this side of the Strait, the sea already pours in over a rather broad area, and with its great rush it bends back rather far the lands it has cleared from its path.

28. Moreover, the region, not well known, and scarcely endowed with anything illustrious, is populated with small towns and gives passage to small rivers. It is of better quality in its soil than in its men; and it is obscure because of the inactivity of its people.

29. Nevertheless, of the things here that are not embarrassing to mention, there are tall mountains that spread – on purpose, as it were – in an unbroken line, and that are called the Seven Brothers [Ceuta] because of their number and likeness to one another, then the Tumuada [Martil] River, the small towns of Rusigada [Russadir/Melilla] and Siga [Takembrit]; and Portus Magnus [Lat., Great Port; Bettioua], so called because of its expanse. That river, which we called the Mulucha, is nowadays the boundary of tribes, but once it was the boundary of kingdoms, those of Bocchus and Jugurtha.

Numidia

30. Numidia, which spreads from there to the banks of the Ampsacus [Kabir] River, is actually narrower in expanse than Mauretania, but it is both more widely cultivated and richer. Of the cities that it contains, the largest are Cirta [Constantine] and Iol [Chercell]. Cirta is far from the sea and is now a colony of the Sittiani, but once it was the home of kings, at its wealthiest when it belonged to Syphax.  Iol, on the seaside, was once unknown but is now famous because it was the royal residence of Juba and because it is referred to now as Caesarea.

31. On the near side of this city – it is situated more or less in the middle of the coast – are the towns of Cartinna [Tenes] and Arsinna, the garrison town of Quiza, Laturus Gulf [Gulf of Arzew], and the Sardabale River. On its far side is the common tomb of the royal family, then the cities of Icosium [Algiers] and Ruthisia and, flowing between them, the Aucus [Harrach] and Nabar [Hamiz], as well as other things, which it is no loss, either of fact or fame, to pass over in silence.

32. Farther inland, and quite far from shore, there reportedly exist and are found – amazingly, if their reality is credible – the spines of fishes, pieces of murex and oyster, rocks smoothed (as they are supposed to be) by waves and no different from rocks in the sea, anchors set in reefs, other indications of the same kind, and even traces, in fields that nourish nothing, of a sea that once poured right up to those locations.

Africa Provincia

33. The following region, from Point Metagonium [Cape Bougaroun] to the Altars of the Philaeni, usurps for itself the name of Africa.  In it are the towns of Hippo Regius [Annaba], Rusiccade [Skikda], and Thabraca [Tabarka].

34. Then three promontories – White Point [Cap Blanc], Point Apollo [Ras Si Ali Mekki], and Mercury Point [Cap Bon] – projecting an impressive distance into the sea, make two large gulfs. They call the one right after Hippo Diarrhytos [Bizerte] the Gulf of Hippo, because the town is located on its shoreline. In the other gulf are Castra Delia, Castra Cornelia, the Bagrada [Mejerda] River, Utica, and Carthage. Both Utica and Carthage are famous, and both were founded by Phoenicians. The former is marked by the death of Cato.  The latter is marked by its own fate: now it is a colony of the Roman people, but it was once their determined rival for imperial power.  In fact, Carthage is now wealthy again, but it remains more famous for the destruction of its ancestors’ claims than for the wealth of its present inhabitants. Hadrumetum [Sousse], Leptis [Lemta], Clupea [Kelibia], Habromacte, Phyre, and Neapolis [Nabeul], the most widely known cities vis-a-vis other obscure places, lie one after another from here to Syrtis.

35. Syrtis is a gulf almost one hundred miles wide where it receives the open sea and three hundred miles wide where it encloses the sea. It has no ports and is frightening and dangerous because of the shallowness of its frequent shoals and even more dangerous because of the reversing movements of the sea as it flows in and out.

36. On its shoreline a huge swamp receives the Triton River; the swamp itself is Lake Triton [Chott Jerid], that is, the lake of Minerva, who, as the locals think, was born there, whence it was given her epithet. They give some credibility to that legend, because they celebrate the day they think is her birthday with contests of virgins, who compete among themselves.

37. Farther on is the town of Oea [Tarabulus/Tripoli] and the Cinyps [Khane] River, which descends through the lushest fields; then a second Leptis and a second Syrtis, equal in name and nature to the first, but approximately twice as large both where it remains open and where it curves. Its first promontory is Borion [Grk., North Point; Ras Taiines], and, from there on, the shore (which the Lotus-Eaters are said to have occupied) reaches its farther promontory on a coast with no ports all the way to Phycon [Ras Sem].

38. The actual Altars have taken their name from the brothers Philaeni, who were sent from Carthage to meet certain Cyrenaeans in order to end by treaty a border war that had been waged for a long time with great losses on both sides.  Later the agreement failed, by which the representatives of the two sides were to be dispatched from both directions at a prearranged time, and by which the boundary was to be established right where the two sides met. They renewed from scratch the agreement that everything on the nearer side fell to their respective countrymen, and the brothers allowed themselves – an amazing deed and most worthy of memory! – to be buried alive on the spot.

Cyrenaica

39. From there to Catabathmos [Senke on the Gulf of Salfim] is the province of Cyrenaica, and in it are the famously reliable oracle of Ammon, the spring they call the Fountain of the Sun, and a particular cliff sacred to Auster [Lat., the Southwind]. When this cliff is touched by human hands, that wind springs up wildly and, whipping the sands like seas, rages the same way it does on water. The fountain boils up in the middle of the night, and then, gradually changing to lukewarm, at dawn it passes to cold; then, in proportion to the sun’s rising, it gets colder and actually becomes solid ice at midday; then it turns lukewarm again, it is steaming at sundown, and the more night advances, the hotter the spring gets. In the middle of the night, it is boiling hot again.

40. Along the shore are found Zephyr [Grk., West Wind] Point and Naustathmos [Grk., Anchorage; Ra’s el HilMl], Port Paraetonius [Marsa Matrfih], the cities of Hesperia, Apollonia [Susah], Ptolemais [Tulmaythah], and Arsinoe [Ttikrah]; and also Cyrene [Shahhat] itself, from which the region takes its name. The Catabathmos Valley, sloping down into Aegypt, is the boundary of Africa…

Syria

62. Syria holds a broad expanse of the littoral, as well as lands that extend rather broadly into the interior, and it is designated by different names in different places. For example, it is called Coele, Mesopotamia, Judaea, Commagene, and Sophene.

63. It is Palestine at the point where Syria abuts the Arabs, then Phoenicia, and then – where it reaches Cilicia-Antiochia, which was powerful long ago and for a long time, but which was most powerful by far when Semiramis held it under her royal sway. Her works certainly have many distinctive characteristics. Two in particular stand out: Babylon was built as a city of amazing size, and the Euphrates and Tigris were diverted into once dry regions.

64. In Palestine, however, is Gaza, a mighty and very well fortified city. This is why the Persians call it their treasury (and from that fact comes the name): when Cambyses headed for Aegypt under arms, he had brought here both riches and the money for war.  Ascalon [Ashqelon] is no less important a city.  Iope [Tel Aviv-Yafo] was founded, as they tell it, before the flood. Iope is where the locals claim that Cepheus was king, based on the proof that particular old altars – altars with the greatest taboo – continue to bear an inscription of that man and his brother Phineus. What is more, they even point out the huge bones of the sea-monster as a clear reminder of the event celebrated in song and legend, and as a clear reminder of Andromeda, who was saved by Perseus.

Phoenicia

65. The Phoenicians are a clever branch of the human race and exceptional in regard to the obligations of war and peace, and they made Phoenicia famous. They devised the alphabet, literary pursuits, and other arts too; they figured out how to win access to the sea by ship, how to conduct battle with a navy, and how to rule over other peoples; and they developed the power of sovereignty and the art of battle.

66. In Phoenicia is Tyre [Sofir], once an island, but now tied to the mainland, because siegeworks were thrown up by Alexander, who at one time assailed it. Villages occupy the upper coast, along with still-wealthy Sidon [Saida], the most important of the maritime cities before it was captured by the Persians.

67. From it to Point Theuprosopon [Grk., Face of God; Cape Madonna/Ras es-Saq’a] there are two towns, Byblos [Jbail] and Botrys [Batrofin]. Farther on there were once three towns, each separated from the next by a single stade; now the place is called Tripolis [Grk., Three-Cities; Trablous] from the number of those towns. Then comes Simyra, a military post, and Marathos, a not obscure city.

68. From there on, Asia is no longer sideways to the sea but runs directly into it. Asia forms a tremendous gulf [Iskenderun Korfezi] with the unbent extension of its littoral. Wealthy peoples live around the gulf, and the location makes them rich, because the fertile district, perforated by frequent navigable riverbeds, exchanges and combines, in a ready traffic, the diverse riches of sea and land.

69. On the gulf is the remainder of Syria, to which the name of Antiochia applies, and on its shore are the cities Seleucia [Kabousi], Hypatos, Berytos [Beyrouth/ Beirut], Laodicea [Al Ladhiqiyah/Latakia], and Rhosos, as well as the rivers that go between these cities, the Lycos [Kelb], the Hypatos, and the Orontes [Asi]; then comes Mt. Amanus [Elma Dagi] and, right after it, Myriandros and the Cilicians.

Cilicia

70. In the gulf’s deepest recess, however, is the site of a great historical turning point long ago. This place observed and witnessed both the Persians routed by Alexander and Darius in flight. Now it is marked not even by the most insignificant city, but then it was famous because of its mighty city. The place was Issos, and that is why the gulf is called the Gulf of Issos. At a distance from there lies Point Hammodes, between the Pyramus [Ceyhan] and Cydnus [Tarsus] Rivers. The Pyramus, the river nearer to Issos, flows beside Mallos; the Cydnus, farther on, goes through Tarsus.

71. Next is a city once occupied by Rhodians and Argives, later occupied by pirates when Pompey allotted it to them; now called Pompeiopolis, then called Soloe.  Beside it, in a small mound, the funerary monument of the poet Aratus must be mentioned for this reason: because – no one knows why – rocks that are hurled on it burst apart. Not far from here the town of Corycos [Korghoz], which is tied to the continent by a narrow ridge, is surrounded by a harbor and by the open sea.

72. Above the town is the so-called Corycian Cave [tenet Deresi], a cave of unique nature, too extraordinary to be easily describable.  For in fact it gapes wide with a tremendous maw and makes an opening, right at the very top, into the mountain, which is located alongside the shore, and which is quite steep with a path of ten stades.  Then, going down deeply – the more impressive the farther down it goes – the cave is alive with hanging growth everywhere, and it is encircled completely by the shady embrace of its sides. The cave is so wonderful and beautiful that, at first sight, it boggles the minds of those who approach it, but it will not gratify them when they have steeled themselves to observe it better.

73. There is one descent into it, narrow, rough, a mile-and-a-half long, through lovely shadows and the shade of a forest that resonates with a tinge of rusticity, while streams continually flow from one direction or another. When the bottom is reached, again a second cave is opened up, but this one is now to be described for entirely other reasons. It terrifies those who enter with its miraculous roar of cymbals and the great uproar of things rustling around.

74. After that, it is visible for some time, but then-where it goes down farther – it becomes darker. It draws deep down anyone who dares, and it lets them in deep as if through a rabbit hole. There a mighty river rising from a mighty spring shows just a glimpse of itself, and, after it has drawn great force in its short channel, again it plunges down and disappears. Inside, there is a space too hair-raising for anyone to dare to go forward, and for that reason it remains unknown.

75. The whole cave, however, being narrow and truly sacred, both worthy of being inhabited by gods and believed to be so, reveals nothing that is not venerable, and it reveals itself as if with some kind of numinous power.

76. Farther on is another cave, which they call the Cave of Typhon, with a narrow mouth and a very tight squeeze, as those who have experienced it have reported. That is why the cave is permeated by an unending night and never easy to investigate. Because this cave was once the bedchamber of Typhon, however, and because now it instantly deprives of life anything and everything that goes down into it, it is worth recording for its nature and its legend.

77. Next, there are two promontories: Sarpedon [Incekum Burun], once the boundary of the kingdom of Sarpedon, and Anemurium [Anamur Burun], which separates Cilicia from Pamphylia. Between them lie Celenderis and Nagidos, colonies of the Samians, but Celenderis is the one nearer to Sarpedon.

Pamphylia

78. In Pamphylia are the navigable Melas River, the town of Sida [Selimiye/Side], and a second river, the Eurymedon. Beside the latter river the great naval battle took place against the Phoenicians and Persians, as well as the great victory of Cimon, the Athenian general.  From a moderately high hill, Aspendos looks out on the sea where the battle was fought. Argives had founded Aspendos, but their neighbors came to possess it.

79. After that, there are two other very strong rivers, the Cestros [Ak] and the Catarhactes [Duiden]. The Cestros is easy to navigate, but the latter gets its name because it makes waterfalls. Between those rivers are the town of Perga [Perge] and the temple of Pergaean Diana, whom they name after the town. Across those same rivers are Mt. Sardemisos and Phaselis, which was founded by Mopsus and marks the boundary of Pamphylia.

Lycia

80. Moving right along, Lycia, named for King Lycus, the son of Pandion, and, as they say, once unsafe because of the Chimaera’s fiery breath, terminates the tremendous gulf with the harbor of Sida and a spur of the Taurus range.

81. The Taurus range actually rises over an immense distance starting from the shores of the Eastern Ocean and reaches quite an elevation. Then, turning with its right flank to the north, its left to the south, the range goes straight west, and with its unbroken chain, where it separates the lands from one another, it is the boundary of great peoples wherever it drives its ridge. The range ends by extending into the sea. Even where it looks east, the Taurus is called by the same name as the whole (as just indicated). Then it is called Haemodes and Caucasus and Propanisus [Paropamisus]; after that, the Caspian Gates, the Niphates, the Armenian Gates; and, where now it abuts Our Seas, the Taurus again.

82. After the Taurus promontory come the Limyra River and the city that is its namesake. Except for Patara, the towns are as unresplendent as they are numerous. The temple of Apollo, once similar to Delphi in wealth and in oracular credibility, makes Patara well known. Farther on are the Xanthus River [Koca §ayi], the town of Xanthos, Mt. Cragus [San Dagh], and the city that bounds Lycia, Telmesos [Fethiye].

Caria

83. Caria follows, and peoples of uncertain origin inhabit it. Some writers hold the opinion that they are indigenous peoples, others that they are Pelasgians, still others that they are Cretans. The nation was once so enamored of weapons and fighting that they used to fight other peoples’ wars for pay. There are some forts here; then two promontories, Pedalion and Crya; and after the Calbis River, the town of Caunus, infamous for the ill health of its inhabitants.

84. From there to Halicarnassos [Bodrum] the following places are located: a few Rhodian colonies and two harbors, Gelos and the one called Thyssanusa after the city it surrounds. Between those harbors are the town of Larumna and the Hill of Pandion, which extends into the sea; then three gulfs, in order, Thymnias, Schoenus, and Bubassius. Thymnias’ promontory is Point Aphrodisium; Schoenus surrounds Hyla; Bubassius surrounds Cyrnos. Then comes Cnidus on the tip of a peninsula, and between it and the Ceramicus Gulf, located in a secluded place, is Euthana.

85. Halicarnassos is an Argive colony, and there is a reason, apart from its founders, why it is memorable: it produced the Mausoleum, that is, the funerary monument of King Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders and the work of Artemisia.  Beyond Halicarnassos are the following places: the coast of Leuca; the cities of Myndos, Caruanda, and Neapolis; the Iasian and Basilic Gulfs. Bargylos is on the Iasian Gulf.

Ionia

86. After the Basilic Gulf, Ionia winds around with several twists and turns. Beginning its first bend from Point Poseidon, it goes around the oracle of Apollo, who in the old days was called Branchidian but nowadays is called Didymaean Apollo. Then comes Miletus, once the lead- ing city of all Ionia because of its skill in war and in peace, and the birthplace of the astronomer Thales, the musician Timotheus, and the natural philosopher Anaximander; and whenever they talk of Ionia, Miletus is also justly renowned for the celebrated talents of its other citizens.  The city of Hippis is the outlet of the Maeander River, and Mt. Latmus is known for the legend of Endymion, deeply loved, as they report, by the Moon.

87. After that, bending in again, the coastline goes around the city of Priene and the mouth of the Gaesus River, and then, the bigger its circuit, the more it embraces. The Panionium [Grk., Pan-lonian Sanctuary] is there. It is a sacred district and, for that reason, is so designated because the Ionians tend it in common.

88. There, founded by fugitives, as they say (and the name agrees with the report), is Phygela. Ephesus is there, and the most renowned temple of Diana, which the Amazons, rulers of Asia, are reported to have dedicated. The Cayster River is there. Lebedos is there, and the shrine of Apollo, which Manto, Teiresias’ daughter, founded when she was fleeing the Epigoni, the conquerors of Thebes. Colophon is there, which Mopsus, son of that same Manto, founded.

89. By contrast, the promontory by which the gulf is defined projects like a peninsula, because with its other side it makes another gulf, which they call the Gulf of Smyrna [Izmir], and because it extends its remaining portions over a wider expanse after a narrow neck of land. On that isthmus, Teos to the south side and Clazomenae to the north are tied together by a common boundary where they press their backs together, and they look out on different seas with different coastlines. On the peninsula itself is Coryna. On the Gulf of Smyrna are the Hermus River and the city of Leuca; beyond is Phocaea, the last city of Ionia.

Aeolis

90. The next region became Aeolis from the time when it began to be cultivated by Aeolians. It was previously called Mysia, however, and where it adjoins the Hellespont, with the Trojans in possession, it was the Troad. They call the first of its cities Myrina after its founder Myrinus. Pelops established the following city when he returned from Greece after his victory over Oenomatis; the leader of the Amazons, Cyme, called it Cyme, once those who had dwelt there were driven out. Above it, the Caicus runs down between Elaea and Pitane, the city that bore Arcesilas, a very renowned head of the Academy when its doctrine was the suspension of judgment.

91. At that point, on a promontory, comes the town of Cyna. This promontory receives gulfs that are not detailed here; they are not small gulfs but long and gentle bends that gradually carry the shoreline all the way back to the foot of Mt. Ida [Kaz]. The mountain range is sprinkled at first with small cities, of which the most renowned is Cisthena. On the inner fold the plain, Thebe by name, contains the adjacent towns Adramytion, Astura, and Chrysa (in the same order as named), and it contains Antandrus on the other side.

92. A dual explanation of that last name is in circulation. Some claim that Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, was captured by the Pelasgians when he ruled there, and that he ransomed himself in exchange for that city. Others think that it was founded by people here, whom civil war had driven from the island of Andros. The latter want the name Antandrus to be accepted as meaning “in exchange for Andros,” the former as “in exchange for a man.”

93. The following stretch of coast reaches Gargara and Assos, colonies of the Aeolians. Then, not far from Troy, a second gulf, Achae6n Limen [Grk., Achaean Harbor], curves its shores, which are very renowned because of the city, the war, and the destruction. Here was the town of Sigeum, here the camp of the warring Achaeans. Descending to this place from Mt. Ida, the Scamander makes its outlet, and the Simois too, rivers more important because of tradition than because of their physical character.

94. The mountain itself, remembered on account of the old struggle for booty and because of the judgment of Paris, reveals the rising sun differently from the way it is usually viewed in other lands. In fact, for people watching from the very peak, more or less from the middle of the night on, scattered fires appear to shine. The nearer the light draws, the more those fires appear to come together and to fuse with one another, until, as a result of being gathered closer and closer together, fewer fires are burning, and until, at the end, they burn with a single flame.

95. After that light has blazed brilliantly, like a fire, for a long time, it compresses itself, becomes round, and turns into a huge sphere. For a long time that sphere appears sizable and tied to the earth. Then it decreases little by little, becoming brighter the more it decreases. Last of all, it dispels the night, and, turning into the sun now, it rises along with the day.

96. Outside the gulf is the Rhoetean coast, with the renowned cities of Rhoeteum and Dardania, but the coast is particularly important for the tomb of Ajax. From here the sea narrows down and no longer washes onto the mainland. Instead, it divides the land again, and it splits, by means of the narrow strait of the Hellespont, the shore that blocked its path. The sea causes the lands where it flows to be its sides again. Hellespont, Propontis, Pontus, and Maeotis.

97. Farther in are the Bithynians and the Mariandyni; on the coast are the Greek cities Abydos, Lampsacum, Parion, and Priapos. Abydos is famous because of the circulation of a great love story long ago. Lampsacum, as the Phocaeans call it, got its name from the fact that, when they inquired where it would be best for them to head out for, an oracular response told them to make their home on the very spot where daylight had first struck.

98. Then the sea widens as the Propontis, into which flows the Granicus, the river known for the very first battle between the Persians and Alexander. On the other side of the river, Cyzicum is located on the isthmus of a peninsula. We have learned that Cyzicus, its namesake, died in battle, slaughtered by the unthinking Minyans when they were invading the Colchians.*  Later on come Placia and Scylace, small Pelasgian colonies over which, from the back, hangs Mt. Olympus, or Mt. Mysius as the locals call it.

* note: The allusion is to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts, who sailed to Colchis to retrieve the Golden Fleece. The story of Jason, the Argonauts, and Medea is told at length by Apollonius Rhodius in his Argonautica, and that of Jason and Medea is reported selectively by Euripides in Medea and in more traditional form by Ovid at Met. 7.1-452.

99. The Rhyndacos River goes through those places that follow. All around it are generated monstrous snakes, remarkable not only because of their size but also because, after they have fled from the sun’s heat into the riverbed, they in fact emerge, open their mouths wide, and swallow birds that fly above them, even if they are flying high and fast. On the far side of the Rhyndacus are Dascylos and Myrlea, the city the Colophonians settled.

100. After that, there are two moderate-sized gulfs. One without a name embraces Cion, the most convenient trading town for Phrygia, which lies not too far away; the other one, the Gulf of Olbia, bears on its promontory a shrine of Neptune and in its bosom Astacos, a city founded by Megarians.

101. Next, the continents again lie rather close to one another, and the channel, where the sea narrows as it is about to enter the Pontus, separates Europe from Asia by five stades. This channel is the Thracian Bosphorus, as previously indicated.  In the very jaws of this Bosphorus is a town, and at its mouth is a temple. The name of the town is Calchedon, its principal founder Archias the Megarian.  The divinity of the temple is Jupiter, its founder Jason.

102. Here now the mighty Pontus opens out, and it extends to both the near and far sides in a long and straight line (except where there are promontories), even though the coast winds everywhere else. However, because the shoreline recedes less on the opposite side than it does to the left or the right, it curves around with soft points until it makes narrow angles on both ends and is rounded very much like the shape of the Scythian bow. The sea is brief, cruel, and cloudy; its stopping-off places are few and far between; it is surrounded by a shore that is neither soft nor sandy; it borders on the north winds; and it is billowy and tempestuous, because it is not deep. In the olden days the sea was called the Axenus [Grk., Unfriendly] Sea from the vicious disposition of the inhabitants, but later it was called the Euxinus [Grk., Friendly] Sea because of traffic with somewhat gentler nations.

103. On the Pontus, first off, the Mariandyni inhabit a city founded, as they say, by Argive Hercules. It is called Heraclea [Eregli], and that name adds credibility to the tradition. Next to it is the Acherusian Cave, which goes down, as they tell it, to the Manes, and they believe that Cerberus was hauled up from there.

104. After that comes the town of Tios, in fact a colony of the Milesians, but now belonging to the land and people of Paphlagonia. More or less in the middle of their littoral is Point Carambis [Kerempe Burun]. On its nearer side is the Parthenius River; the cities of Sesamus, Cromnos, and Cytorus (founded by Cytisorus, the son of Phrixus); then Cinolis, Collyris, and Armene, which marks the end of Paphlagonia.

105. Next, the Chalybes occupy two very renowned cities, Amisos and Sinope [Sinop], the latter being the birthplace of Diogenes the Cynic. As to rivers, they have the Halys [Kizil Irmak] and the Thermodon [Terme]. Beyond the Halys is the city of Lycastos; a plain lies beside the Thermodon. On that plain was the town of Themiscurum, and there was an encampment, too, of Amazons, which they call Amazonius for that reason.

106. The Tibareni, for whom the highest good lies in playing and laughing, extend to the Chalybae. Farther on, the Mossyni take shelter under wooden towers, completely mark their whole bodies with tattoos, eat in the open air, recline with the sexes mixed and without concealing it, and choose kings by vote. They keep their kings in chains and under the closest guard, and when the kings have earned blame for exercising some power wrongfully, the people punish them by depriving them of a whole day’s food. Otherwise, the people are rough, crude, and absolutely vicious to those who put in to shore there.

107. After them come the less savage Macrocephali [Grk., Long- Heads], Bechiri, and Buxeri, but even these peoples are of unruly disposition. Cities are rare; particularly renowned, though, are Cerasunta and Trapezos [Trabzon].

108. Next is that place where the stretch of coastline coming from the Bosphorus terminates, and from there the bend of the opposite shore, becoming more elevated on the gulf, forms the narrowest angle of the Pontus. Here are the Colchians; the Phasis [Rioni] bursts into the sea here; here is the town colonized by Themistagoras the Milesian; here are the grove and temple of Phrixus, who is well known from the old legend of the Golden Fleece.

109. Rising from here, the mountains stretch in a long ridge until they connect to the Riphaean [Grk., Gusty] Range.  These mountains, on one end, face the Euxine, the Maeotis, and the Tanais, and on the other they face the Caspian Sea. They are called the Ceraunians but are elsewhere called the Taurus Mountains, the Moschic, the Amazonian, the Caspian, the Coraxic, the Caucasus – called by as many different names as there are peoples beside them.

110. On the first bend, however, of the now curving shore, there is a town that Greek merchants founded, and they reportedly called it Cycnus because the voice of a swan [Grk. kyknos] had given a sign to them when, while being tossed around in a blinding storm, they did not know where land was. Wild, uncivilized nations living beside the vast sea occupy its remaining coastline: the Melanchlaeni, the Toretici, and six Colician peoples (the Coraxici, the Phthirophagi, the Heniochi, the Achaeans, the Cercetici, and, at this point, the Sindones, on the boundary of the Maeotis).

111. In the territory of the Heniochi, Dioscorias was founded by Castor and Pollux, who came to the Pontus with Jason; and Sindos, in the territory of the Sindones, was founded by the actual cultivators of the land.

112. Then a region, situated sideways to the sea and moderately wide, runs between the Pontus and the Swamp to the Cimmerian Bosphorus. The Coracanda, which drains in two riverbeds to the lake and to the sea, makes this region a peninsula. Four cities are located there: Hermonassa, Cepoe, Phanagorea, and, on the very shore, Cimmerium.

113. On the near side, the Maeotic Lake receives those who enter it. It spreads in all directions where it touches broad land, but it is surrounded by an uncurving shore nearer to the sea. Maeotis is enclosed, as it were, by a border except where it has its opening, and at the nearer end it is virtually similar to the Pontus in size.

114. The Maeotici cultivate the shore that curves from the Cimmerian Bosphorus all the way to the Tanais, as do the Thatae, the Sirachi, the Phicores, and – next to the mouth of the river – the Ixamatae. Among them, women practice the same skills as men, so much so that women are not free even from military service. Men serve in the infantry and fight with bows; women enter battle on horseback and do not fight with swords but kill their captives by dragging them off with lariats. Still, women do marry, but there is no predictable age at which to be considered marriageable: women remain virgins except for those who have killed an enemy.

115. The Tanais itself, falling from the Riphaean Mountains, rushes so precipitously that it alone endures both summery heat and wintry cold in close proximity, yet it runs down always the same, unchanged and fast-moving, even when neighboring rivers, the Maeotis, the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and certain parts of the Pon`tus are all frozen by winter’s cold.

116. The Sauromatae occupy its banks and the places that are contiguous with them. They are one nation but have as many peoples as they have names. First, the Maeotid Gynaecocratumenoe [Grk., Ruled By Women] – the kingdoms of the Amazons – occupy plains that are rich in pasture but barren and bare for other things. The Budini inhabit the city of Gelonos. Next to them the Thyssagetae and Turcae occupy endless forests and feed themselves by hunting.

117. The next region is deserted and rough, with uninterrupted cliffs over a wide stretch; it extends all the way to the Aremphaei. These people enjoy customs that are very much based on fair treatment; they have sacred groves for homes and berries as food; and both men and women keep their heads bare. Therefore these people are regarded as consecrated, and no one from nations as savage as those here profanes these people, which results in the custom that other people flee to them for asylum. Farther on, the Riphaean Mountains rise up, and beyond them lies the shore that faces Ocean.

Book II
Around Our Sea – from the End of Asia to the Pillars of Hercules

1. That is the boundary, as I have said, and the layout of Asia where it verges on Our Sea and the Tanais [Don]. If people travel by the Tanais into the Maeotis, Europe is situated to the right, but to the left if sailing upriver. In Europe, constantly falling snow makes those places contiguous with the Riphaean Mountains (which actually reach even this far) so impassable that, in addition, they prevent those who deliberately travel here from seeing anything. After that comes a region of very rich soil but quite uninhabitable because griffins, a savage and tena- cious breed of wild beasts, love – to an amazing degree – the gold that is mined from deep within the earth there, and because they guard it with an equally amazing hostility to those who set foot there.

2. The first human beings are Scyths, and first of the Scyths are the so-called one-eyed Arimaspoe; after them the Essedones are found all the way to Maeotis. The Buces [Nogaika] River cuts the Maeotis’ bend, and the Agathyrsi and Sauromatae surround it. The Hamaxobioe [Grk., Wagon Dwellers] are called that because they use their wagons as homes.  Then a strip, now running sideways to the Cimmerian Bosphorus, is enclosed both by the Pontus and by the Maeotis.

3. The Satarchae occupy the area that goes toward the Swamp; beside the Cimmerian Bosphorus are the Cimmerian towns of Murmecion, Panticapaeon [Kerch], Theodosia [Feodosiya], and Hermisium, while the Taurici live beside the Euxine Sea. Beyond them, a bay full of harbors and therefore called Calos Limen [Grk., Beautiful Harbor] is enclosed by two promontories. One promontory they call Criu Metopon [Grk., Ram’s Brow; Ay Todor], and it is equal and opposite to Point Carambis, which we have said is in Asia. The other one is Point Parthenion [Grk. Maidenshead]. The town of Cherronesus [Sevastopol] lies beside this promontory and was founded – if this is believable – by Diana. The town is particularly famous for a nymphaeum in the form of a cave, which was dedicated on its citadel to the nymphs.

4. Then the sea encroaches on the bank, and it follows all the way along the receding coastlines until it is five miles distant from the Maeotis, where it renders them into a peninsula [Krym/Crimea]. One of these coasts the Satarchae occupy, the Taurici the other. What lies between the Swamp and the bay is called Taphrae [Perekop]; the bay is called Carcinites [Karkinitskiy]. In it is the city of Carcine [Skadovsk], flanked by two rivers, the Gerrhos [Malochnaya] and the Hypacaris [Kuban], which make their outlet to the sea through a single mouth, although they flow down from different springs and from different directions. For the Gerrhos rolls along between the territory of the Basilidae and that of the Nomads, the Hypacaris right through that of the Nomads.

5. Then come the vast forests that these lands bear, as well as the Panticapes [Ingulets] River, which separates the Nomads and the Georgians. At that time the land, which pulls back for a long stretch, is tied to the shore by a slender base; subsequently, where it is moderately wide, the land fashions itself gradually into a point. Just as if it were collecting its long sides into a sword point, the land affects the appearance of a drawn sword. Achilles entered the Pontic Sea with a hostile fleet, and it is remembered that he celebrated his victory there with competitive games and that there he routinely exercised himself and his men when there was a respite from the fighting. Therefore the land is called Dromos Achilleos [Grk., Achilles’ Racecourse; Tendrovskaya Kosa].

6. Then the Borysthenes [Dnepr] River washes up on the territory of the nation that bears its name. The loveliest among Scythia‘s rivers, it flows down the most smoothly (the others are turbulent), and it is calmer than the others and absolutely delicious to drink. This river feeds the most prolific pastures and sustains big fish with the best flavor and no bones. The Borysthenes comes from a long way off and rises from unidentified springs. With its bed the river skims through a path of forty days’ hiking, is navigable over the same route, and debouches between the Greek towns of Borysthenida and Olbia.

7. The Hypanis [Yuzhny Bug/Southern Bug] River borders the territory of the Callipidae. It rises from a vast swamp, which the locals call its Mother, and for a long while flows down exactly as it was born.  Finally, not far from the sea, it takes in from a small spring (the name of which is Exampaeus) waters so bitter that from this point on the very river still con- tinues to flow but is now changed completely. The Asiaces [Tiligul], the next river, descends between the territories of the Callipidae and the Asiacae. The Tyra [Dnestr] separates the people here from the Istrians.  That river rises among the Neuri, and where it makes its outlet to the sea, it runs beside a town of the same name.

8. The river that separates the peoples of Scythia from their neighbors, however, begins – its sources in Germany are known – with a name different from the one with which it finishes. In fact, through immense lands belonging to great nations, it is for a long time the Danube; then with the local peoples using another name, it becomes the Ister.  After receiving several more rivers, it then becomes a mighty river. Of those rivers that debouch into Our Sea, the Ister is no smaller than the Nile and has the same number of mouths as that river, but it flows into the sea with three shallow mouths and four that are navigable.

9. The temperaments and cultures of the nations differ. The Essedones celebrate their parents’ funerals joyfully and with a festive gathering of family members. In the feast, they devour the actual corpses, once they have been ripped apart and stirred in with the innards of slaughtered cat- tle. After they have smoothed and polished them skillfully, the skulls are bound with gold, and they use them for drinking cups. These are, among them, the last rites of their religion.

10. The Agathyrsi tattoo their faces and limbs, each more or less in proportion to the prominence of their ancestors, but they all do so with the same marks and in such a way that they cannot be washed off. The Satarchae have no experience of gold and silver (the worst pestilences), and they conduct business by barter. They even inhabit caves and dugouts, with their homes sunk into the ground because of the savage and virtually unending winter; they cover their whole bodies and even their faces except where they look out.

11. The Taurians, well remembered for the arrival of Iphigenia and Orestes, are monstrous in character and have the monstrous reputation that they slaughter newcomers as sacrificial offerings. The Basilid nation began with Hercules and Echidna. Their character is regal, and only arrows serve them as weapons. The wandering Nomads follow the pastures of the flocks, and as long as those pastures last, they pass the time in a fixed abode. The Georgians cultivate and work the fields. The Asiacae do not know what stealing is, and for that reason they neither protect their own property nor touch anyone else’s.

12. To the interior the ritualistic behavior of the inhabitants is cruder and the territory less tilled. They love the bloodshed of war, and it is customary for warriors to drink blood from the very wounds of the first man they ever killed. The more a man kills, the more valued he is among them. Among the marks of shame, by contrast, surely the worst is to have no experience of shedding blood. Not even their peace treaties are without blood. The negotiators all cut themselves and sip the drawn blood after they have mixed everybody’s together. They think that drinking it is the surest guarantee of a lasting good faith.

13. At their banquets, the happiest and most frequent topic of conversation is to tell how many men each one has killed. Those who have reported the most chug from double cups. Among the carousers, that is a special honor. These people smooth out their drinking cups from the skulls of their greatest personal enemies, the same way the Essedones do from their parents’ skulls.

14. Among the Anthropophagi, even ordinary banquets are provided with human entrails. The Geloni cover them- selves and their horses with the skins of their enemies-their horses with the flesh from the rest of the body, themselves with the skin from the heads. The Melanchlaeni [Grk., Black-Robes] have coal black clothing, and from that they get their name. There is a preordained time for each of the Neuri at which, if they so desire, they metamorphose into wolves and back into who they were.

15. Mars is the god of all these peoples. To him they dedicate swords and sword belts instead of images and sacrifice human beings instead of animals. The lands cover a broad expanse, and because the rivers often overflow their banks, they are never barren of pasture. Yet in some places the lands are so completely infertile for any other growth that the inhabitants, who are short of wood, feed their fires with bones.

Thrace

16. Thrace is next to these lands, and it extends far inland from its front on the Pontic end all the way to the Illyrians. Where it extends its lateral borders, Thrace is contiguous with the Ister and Our Sea. The region is favorable neither in its climate nor in its soil, and except where it is closer to the sea, it is infertile, cold, and quite intolerant of cultivated plants. It rarely ever sustains a fruit-bearing tree but rather commonly sustains the vine. The fruit of the vine, however, does not ripen and soften except where the cultivators have stopped the cold by heaping leaves around them. It nourishes men in more kindly fashion, but not for their physical appearance. Indeed, their bodily condition is rough and unbecoming but is especially conducive to fierceness and population size, since they are both numerous and merciless.

17. It lets few rivers go through to the sea, but the most famous ones it lets through are the Hebrus [Merica], the Nestos [Nestos/Mesta], and the Strymon [Struma]. The interior throws up mountains – Mt. Haemos [Stara Planina], Mt. Rhodope [Rodopi Planina/Despoto dagh], and Mt. Orbelos [Vihren/Belasitza], all very well known for the sacred rituals of Father Liber and for the gathering of maenads that Orpheus instituted.  Of these three, the Haemos rises so high that it gives views of both the Euxine and the Adriatic Seas from its very peak.

18. The Thracians inhabit the land, one people, although they are fur- nished with a variety of names and customs. Some Thracians – and certainly the Getae – are wild and absolutely prepared to die. A range of belief brings this readiness into being. Some individuals think that the souls of the dead will return; others think that even if they do not return, souls still are not obliterated but go to a happier place; still others think that souls do perish absolutely but that dying is better than living. Therefore childbirth is mourned among certain Thracians, and newborns are wept over. Funerals, in contrast, are festive and are celebrated, just like their sacred rites, with singing and gamboling.

19. Not even in the case of women does the mind shirk its duty. They consider it the greatest obligation to be killed over the corpses of their dead husbands and to be buried along with them.  Because individual men have several wives at once, their wives compete in a great contest to be the one to have this honor, and they compete before those who will make the decision. It suits their mores and is a special source of joy when there is a struggle to be supreme in this contest.

20. Other women raise the lament with their keening and raise their voices in the most bitter lamentations. But those who have a mind to console them bring their weapons and wealth to the funeral pyre, and these same individ- uals are prepared, as they say over and over again, either to bargain with or to fight with the destiny of the dead man in case it is up to them; when there is no room for fighting or money, < . . . >.

21. Virgins worthy of marriage are not given to their husbands by their parents. Instead, they either are publicly displayed as ready for marriage or else are put up for sale. The explanation for the choice of procedure rests on appearance and character. Upright, beautiful women are prized; men with money seek out all the others for a price. The use of wine is unknown to some Thracians, but a hilarity like drunkenness comes over them from the smoke at banquets when certain seeds are thrown onto the fires as they sit around them.

22. On the seacoast, Istropolis [Istriya] lies beside the Ister; next Callatis [Mangalia], colonized by the Milesians; then Tomoe [Constanta], the Carian Port [Shabla], and Point Tiristis [Kaliakra Burun]. The second angle of the Pontus receives those who go past this promontory-that is, the angle opposite to the one by the Phasis River and like it but fuller. Here was Bizone [Kavarna], which collapsed in an earthquake. Here are the port of Crunos and the cities of Dionysopolis [Balchik], Odessos [Varna], Messembria [Nesebir], and Anchialos [Pomoriye], as well as the great Apollonia [Sozopol] in the deepest part of the bay, right where the Pontus finishes its second bend with an angle.

23. From here the shoreline is straight except that more or less in the middle it extends into a promontory, which they call Thynias [Igneada Burun]. In contradistinction, the coast continues with its uncurved shores, and it supports the cities of Halmydesos [Midye], Philiae, and Phinopolis. That is as far as the Pontus goes.

24. After that come the Thracian Bosphorus and Propontis; on the Bosphorus is Byzantion [Istanbul], and on the Propontis, Selymbria [Silivri], Perinthos [Marmaraereglisi/Eregli], and Bytinis [Vize]. The rivers that flow among these places are the Erginos [Ergene] and Atyras [Karasu]. At that point comes the part of Thrace once ruled by Rhessus, then Samian Bisanthe [Tekirdag], and once-mighty Cypsela [ipsala]. Farther on is the place the Greeks call Macron Teichos [Grk., Long Wall], as well as Lysimachia, sitting at the base of the great peninsula.

25. The land that follows never runs to much width and is very constricted here between the Hellespont and the Aegaean. They call the narrow part Isthmos, its forward part Mastusia, and the whole Chersonessus [Gelibolu/Gallipoli], which is famous for many reasons.

26. On it is the river Aegos [Grk., Goat], remarkable because of the destruction of the Attic fleet.  Sestos [Nara] is there too, opposite Abydos [Maltepe], and is very well known for the love of Leander.  That is also the region where the Persian army dared to join by bridges lands that were separated by space and sea. An amazing and mighty deed! It crossed from Asia to Greece on foot and crossed the sea without sailing on it.  The bones of Protesilafis have been consecrated there with a shrine.  Here too is Port Coelus [Kilya], remarkable for the destruction of the Laconian fleet when the Athenians and Lacedaemonians clashed in naval battle.26 Here is Cynos Sema [Grk., Tomb of the Dog], the tomb of Hecuba, acquiring this humble name either from the figure of the dog into which she reportedly was changed or else from the misfortune into which she had fallen. Here is Madytos [Maydos/Eceabat] and here Eleus [Eski Hissarlik], which ends the Hellespont.

27. The long shore immediately thrusts along the Aegean Sea for a considerable distance, and in a great, gentle ambit from here to what is called Cape Sunium it goes around land that is swept back from its path. Those who sail this stretch and round Mastusia have to enter a gulf that flows onto the other side of the Thracian Chersonesus and is enclosed by a mountain ridge just like a valley. The gulf is called Melas [Grk., Black] after the river [Kavak] it takes in, and it embraces two cities, Alopeconnesus and Cardia [Karakdy], which is situated on the far side of the Isthmus.

28. Aenos [Enez], which was founded by Aeneas in exile, is an exceptional place. The Cicones are found around the Hebrus River, and on its far side is Doriscos, where they say Xerxes measured his troops by space, because he could not do so by number.  After that is Cape Serrhion [Maikri] and Zone [Tshoban], where even the groves, according to the story, followed the singing Orpheus.  At that point come the Sthenos River and Maronia lying on its banks.

29. The farther region bore Diomedes. He used to throw strangers to be eaten by his monstrous horses, and he was thrown, once and for all, to those same horses by Hercules.  What they call the Tower of Diomedes remains as evidence of the legend, and so too the city of Abdera, which his sister named after herself. That city, however, has something else to be remembered for, namely, that it gave birth to Democritus the natural philosopher, rather than that it was founded in this way.

30. Farther on, the Nestos River flows, and between it and the Strymon are the cities of Philippi, Apollonia, and Amphipolis; between the Strymon and Athos is the Tower of Calarnaea, the port of Capru Limen [Grk., Boar’s Harbor], and the cities of Acanthus [Hierissos] and Echinia; between Athos and Pallene are the cities of Cleonae and Olynthos. The Strymon, as we have said, is a river. It begins far away, where it is a rivulet, but becomes fuller now and then from waters that originate elsewhere. After the river forms a lake not far from the sea, it then rushes into the sea from a bed greater than the one it had come down with.

31. Mt. Athos is so tall that it is believed to be even higher than the place from which the rains fall. The idea gets credibility because ashes do not wash off the altars that it has on its peak but remain on the mound where they are left. The mountain, however, proceeds to the sea not by a spur, as some say, but with its whole long ridge.

32. Where it clings to the continent, it was excavated and then sailed across by Xerxes when he was invading Greece, and it is still tra- versable by a navigable strait. Small colonies of Pelasgians occupy the foot of the mountain. On its summit was the town of Acrothoon, where, as they tell it, the life of the inhabitants was longer by half than it was in other lands.

33. Pallene [Kassindra] has so much open land that it is the seat and territory of five cities; the whole peninsula extends into the sea even though it is quite narrow where it begins. Potidaea is located there, but where it is broader, Mende and Scione need mention. Mende was founded by the Eretrians, Scione by the Achaeans as they were returning after the capture of Troy.

Macedonia, Greece, and Illyricum

34. Then the Macedonian peoples inhabit a number of cities, of which Pelle is especially renowned. Its native sons create this reputation- Philip the conqueror of Greece and Alexander, too, the conqueror of Asia. On the coast, Megyberna Bay, between Points Deris and Canas- traeum, goes around both the port of Cophos and the cities of Torone and Myscella, as well as Megyberna [Grk. Mekyberna; Molivpyrgos] (whence the bay’s name).

35. Sane is next to Point Canastraeum; in the middle, where the land folds in, Megyberna Bay cuts moderately into the shoreline. However that may be, the huge Thermaic Gulf, with its long sides, extends well into the sea. The Axius River [Vardar/Axios] runs through Macedon into this gulf, and at this point so does the Peneus through Thessalian territory. Thessalonice [Thessaloniki/ Salonica] comes before reaching the Axius, and between these two places are Cassandria, Cydna, Aloros, and Itharis. From the Peneus to Point Sepias are Eurymenae, Meliboea, and Castanea, all equally famous except that Philoctetes, its native son, ennobles Meliboea.

36. The lands of the interior, famed for the names of its localities, pro- duce almost nothing that is not well known. Not far from here is Olympus; Pelion is here; so is Ossa-all mountains remembered for the fabled War of the Giants. Here is Pieria, both the mother of the Muses and their home. Here is the ground last tramped by the Greek Hercules, the defile of Mt. Oeta. Here is Tempe, well known for its sacred grove, and Libethra [Litokhoron], the fountain of songs.

37. At that point Greece now projects very much on a grand scale. As far as it borders on the Sea of Myrtos, Greece, extending from north to south, faces the sunrise over the Aegean’s waves and sunset over those of the Ionian Sea. Also, the land, quite wide at first and called Hellas, goes forward with a considerable coastline; then it is virtually cut more or less in half as both seas – but the Ionian Sea more – invade its lateral coastlines to the point that Hellas is four miles wide.

38. From there again, with the land mass widening both to the near and the far side and going farther down into the sea, Greece is not as wide as it had begun, but nevertheless it is of great size again and extends as a virtual peninsula. It is called the Peloponnesos, and at the same time, because of the bays and promontories, by which it is incised as if by veins, it is similar to the leaf of a plane tree, because it spreads rather widely from a slender stem.

39. After Macedonia, first comes Thessaly, and after it Magnesia, Phthiotis, Doris, Locris, Phocis, Boeotia, Atthis [Attica], and the Megarid; but most famous of all is Atthis. In the Peloponnesos are Argolis, Laconice, Messenia, Achaian Elis, and Arcadia; farther on are Aetolia, Acarnania, and Epiros, all the way to the Adriatic.

40. Of the places and cities that the sea does not wash up on, the following are the ones especially worth remembering: in Thessaly nowadays Larissa is best known, but in the old days lolcos was; in Magnesia, Antronia; in Phthiotis, Phthia; < … >; in Locris, Cynos and Calliaros; in Phocis, Delphi, Mt. Parnassos, and both the shrine and the oracle of Apollo; in Boeotia, Thebes and Mt. Cithaeron, which is celebrated in song and legend;

41. in Atthis, Eleusis, which is sacred to Ceres, and Athens, more famous than needs to be pointed out; in the Megarid, Megara, from which the region takes its name; likewise, in the Argolid, Argos, along with Mycenae and the temple of Juno, which is very famous for its antiquity and for its cult; in Laconice, Therapnae, Lacedaemon, Amyclae, and Mt. Taygetus; in Messenia, Messenia and Methone;

42. in Achaia – and – Elis, once the Pisa of Oinomais, Elis, still famous today, and the shrine of Olympian Jupiter, known mainly, in fact, for its ath- letic competition and unique inviolability but also for the actual statue that is the work of Phidias.

43. The Peloponnesian peoples ring Arcadia on all sides. In Arcadia are the cities of Psophis, Tegea, and Orchomenos, along with Mt. Pholo , Mt. Cyllene, Mt. Parthenius, and Mt. Maenalus and the Ery- manthus and Ladon Rivers; in Aetolia, the town of Naupactos; in Arcanania, that of Stratos; in Epirus, the temple of Jupiter Dodonaeus and likewise the sacred spring. Although this spring is cold, and although like all other springs it extinguishes burning torches that are immersed in it, it lights them up again when from afar they are moved, unlit, toward it.

44. When, however, one coasts along the shores, the course after Point Sepias lies beside Demetrias, Halos, Pteleon, and Echinos, to the Gulf of Pagasa. That gulf, embracing the city of Pagasa, takes in the Sperchios River and is remembered because the Minyans launched the Argo from there when they left for Colchis.

45. The following places must first be passed by those sailing from there to Sunium: the sizable Gulf of Malia and equally sizable Opuntian Gulf, and on these gulfs the monument to the Laconian war-dead; Thermopylae, Opoes, Scarphia, Cnemides, Alope, Anthedon, Larumna, and Aulis, the camp of Agamemnon’s fleet and the Greeks who swore allegiance against Troy; Marathon, the witness of numerous heroic acts right from Theseus on but especially known for the slaughter of the Persians;

46. Rhamnus, small but still renowned, because in it is the shrine of Amphiaratis and the Nemesis by Phidias; then Thoricos and Brauronia, once cities, now mere names. Sunium is a promontory and terminates the coast of Hellas that faces east.

47. From there the land mass rotates to face south and goes back up as far as Megara; the land lies now with its front to the sea, the same way it did previously with its side.  Piraeus, Athens’ port, is there, as well as the Scironian Rocks, infamous once upon a time (and even today) for Sciron’s savage hospitality.

48. Megara’s territory runs up to the Isthmos, which gets its name because the Aegean Sea, being at a remove of four miles from the Ionian Sea, ties the Peloponnesos to Hellas by a narrow neck of land. On it is the town of Cenchreae; a temple of Neptune, which is renowned because of the so-called Isthmian Games; and Corinth, a city once famous for its wealth, better known later for its destruction, and now a Roman colony. Corinth has a view of both seas from the peak of the acropolis they call Acrocorinth.

49. Bays and promontories mangle the coast of the Peloponnesos, as we have noted: from the east, Bucephalos, Chersonessus [Methana], and Scyllaeon; to the south, Malea, Taenaros [Matapan], Acritas, and Ichthys; to the west, Chelonates and Araxos. The Epidaurians and Troezenians live between the Isthmos and Scyllaeon. The Epidaurians are famous for the temple of Aesculapius, the Troezenians glorious for their loyalty to an alliance with Athens.45

50. The Saronic Gulf and the Gulfs of Schoenos and Pogon are located there, but on their shores are the towns of Epidaurus, Troezene, and Hermiona. Between Scyllaeon and Malea is the so-called Gulf of Argolis; between Malea and Taenaros, the Laconian Gulf; between Taenaros and Akritas, the Gulf of Asine; between Taenaros and Ichthys, the Gulf of Cyparissos.

51. On the Gulf of Argolis are the well-known Erasinus and Inachus Rivers and the well-known town of Lerne; on the Laconian Gulf are Gythium and the Eurotas; on Cape Taenaros itself is a temple and a cave of Neptune, similar in appearance and legend to what we called the Acherusian Cave on the Pontus; in the Gulf of Asine is the Pamisum River; on the Gulf of Cyparissos is the Alpheus River. A city located on the shore gave its name to these gulfs-Cyparissos to the latter, Asine to the former.

52. The Messenians and Pylians till the land, and Pylos actually lies beside the sea. Cyllene, Callipolis, and Patrae [Patrai/Patras] occupy that shore where the Chelonates and Araxos Rivers have their outlets, but Cyllene is distinguished because they think Mercury was born there. After that, the Rhion – that is the sea’s name there – cuts, by means of a narrow passage like a strait, into the side of the remaining shoreline and breaks in between the Aetolians and the Peloponnesians as far as the Isthmos.

53. There the Peloponnesian littoral starts to face north. On these shores are Aegion, Aegira, Olyros, and Sicyon, but on the opposite shores are Pagae, Creusis, Anticyra, Oeanthia, Cirrha [Itea], Calydon (somewhat better known by name), and Evenos beyond Rhion. In Acarnania, which is especially famous, are the town of Leucas and the Achelofis River [Asprop6tamo].

54. In Epiros nothing is better known than the Ambracian Gulf. The gulf, which lets in a great sea through its narrow jaws (less than a mile wide), makes it well known, as do the cities that line its shore-Actium, the Amphilochian Argives, and Ambracia [Arta], the royal seat of the Aeacids and of Pyrrhus in particular.  Beyond is Butroton, then the Ceraunian Mountains [Mali i pikes with Kara Burun], and after these places a bend toward the Adriatic.

55. The Adriatic Sea is formed by a great retraction of the littoral and in fact covers a considerable breadth, although it reaches considerably farther in. It is surrounded by Illyric peoples as far as Tergeste [Trieste] but then by the Gallic and Italic peoples. The Partheni and Dasaretae occupy its first places; the Taulantii, Encheleae, and Phaeaces occupy what follows.

56. After that come the Illyrii proper, then the Piraeans, Liburnians, and Istria.  The first city is Oricum [Eriko], the second Dyrrachium [Durazzo/Durres], where Epidamnus used to be. (The Romans changed the name, because travelers headed there thought of the name as an omen, as if they were going “to damnation.”)

57. Farther on are Apollonia [Polan], Salona [Solin], Iader [Zadar], Narona, Tragurium [Trogir], the Gulf of Pola, and Pola, which was once inhabited, as they tell it, by Colchians.  How much things change! Now Pola is a Roman colony.  Moreover, the rivers are the Aeas [Vijose], the Nar [Neretva], and the Danube (which here is called the Ister); but the Aeas comes after Apollonia, and the Nar comes between the Piraeans and the Liburnians, while the Ister runs through the territory of the Istrians.  Tergeste, located in the deepest part of the Adriatic Gulf, is the boundary of Illyricum.

Italy

58. About Italy a few things will be said, more because the order requires it than because it needs to be described. All its places are well known.  From the Alps it begins its extension into the sea, and as it proceeds it is elevated down the middle by the continuous ridge of the Apennines. Italy runs down solid for a long time between the Adriatic and Tuscan Seas (also known as the Upper and Lower Seas). But when it is far removed from its beginning, it divides into two horns, and it looks off toward the Sicilian Sea with one horn, toward the Ionian Sea with the other. Italy as a whole is narrow, and in some places much nar- rower than where it had begun.

59. Various peoples cultivate its interior. The Carni and Veneti cultivate the left part up to Gallia Togata; then come Italic peoples – Picentines, Frentani, Dauni, Apulians, Calabri, and Sallentines. To the right, at the foot of the Alps, are the Ligurians; at the foot of the Apennines, Etruria; after that, Latium, the Volsci, Campania, and, below Lucania, the Bruttii.

60. Of the cities that are inhabited far from the sea, the wealthiest are, to the left side, Antenor’s Patavium [Padova/Padua], Mutina [Modena], and Bononia [Bologna], colonies of the Romans; to the right, Capua, founded by the Tuscans, and Rome, long ago founded by shepherds, now a second book in itself if there is to be discussion on the topic.

61. On the shores, by contrast, Concordia is next after Tergeste. Between them flows the Timavus [Timavo], which rises from nine heads but debouches through a single mouth.  Then, not far from the sea, the Natiso [Natisone] River runs beside rich Aquileia. Farther on is Altinum [Altino].

62. The Padus [Po] occupies the upper coast over a considerable expanse. In fact, where it rises from the very roots of Mt. Vesulus [Monte Viso], it first gathers itself from small springs and is somewhat scant and meager. Then the river increases and is fed by other rivers so much that at the end it lets into the sea through seven mouths. One of these mouths they call the Great Padus.

63. Once it begins, the river rushes forward with such speed that for a long time it drives, with waves breaking, the same waters it began with and pre- serves its own bed even in the sea until the Ister River, flowing in with the same force from the opposite shore of Istria, meets it. Because of his phenomenon, for those sailing through that vicinity, where the rivers meet from both sides, a drink of fresh water is possible in the midst of salty sea.

64. The route from the Padus to Ancona crosses Ravenna, Ariminum [Rimini], Pisaurum [Pesaro], the colony of Fanum [Fano], the Metaurus River, and the Aesis River. And in fact, the terminus sits in the narrow joint – like a bent elbow [Grk. ankon] – of those two famous promontories that meet there from opposite sides, and thus it was called Ancon by the Greeks; Ancona lies between the Gallic and Italic peoples like a boundary stone.

65. The shores of Picenum welcome travelers beyond this point. On these shores are the cities of Numana [Umana], Potentia [Santa Maria di Potenza], Cluana, and Cupra [Cupramarittima] and, moreover, the strongholds of Firmum [Fermo], Adria [Atri], and Tru- entinum (the adjacent river [Tronto] is also its namesake). After that, the Frentani hold the mouths of the Matrinus and Aternus [Pescara] Rivers, as well as the cities of Buca [Termoli] and Histonium [Vasto]. The Daunians, however, have the Tifernus [Biferno] River and the towns of Cliternia [Campomarino], Larinum [Larino], and Teanum, as well as Mt. Garganus [Gargano].

66. A bay by the name of Urias [Lago di Varano], moderate in size but often harsh of access, is surrounded by the continuous Apulian shore. It is above both Sipontum [Santa Maria di Siponto]-or, as the Greeks said, Sipiuntum-and the river contiguous with Canusium [Canosa di Puglia], the Aufidus [Ufente] as they call it; after that are Barium [Bari], Gnatia [Torre d’Egnazia], and Rudiae [Rugge], renowned for Ennius; and at this point in Calabria are Brundisium [Brindisi], Valetium [Valeso], Lupiae [Lecce], and Mt. Hydrus, then the Sallentine Fields, the coast of Sallentum, and the Greek city Callipolis [Gallipoli].

67. The Adriatic reaches this far; so does one side of Italy. Its coastline breaks into two horns, in fact, as we have said.  It lets the sea enter between both horns, however, and divides it several times by slender promontories. The coast does not go around, then, with a uniform edge, and it receives the sea not spread out and wide open but in bays.

68. The first one is called the Gulf of Tarentum, between Point Sallentum and Point Lacinium [Capo Colonna], and on it are Tarentus [Taranto], Metapontum [Metaponto], Heraclea, Croto [Crotone], and Thurium. Second is the Bay of Scyllaceum [Gulf of Squillace], between Point Lacinium and Zephyr [Grk., West Wind] Point, and on this bay is Petelia [Strongoli], Carcinus, Scyllaceum [Squillace], and Mystiae. The third one, between Zephyr Point and Bruttium, passes around Bruttium, Consentia [Cosenza], Caulonia, and Locri. In Bruttium are Columna Rhegia, Rhegium [Reggio], Scylla, Taurianum, and Metaurum.

69. From here there is a bend to the Tuscan Sea and the second side of the same land. On this side of Italy are Medma, Hipponium (or Vibo), Temesa, Clampetia [San Lucido], Blanda, Buxentum, Velia, Palinurus [Capo Palinuro] (once the name of a Trojan helmsman, now the name of a place), the Gulf of Paestum [Gulf of Salerno], the town of Paestum, the Silerus [Sele] River, Picentia [Vicenza], Petrae (which the Sirens once inhabited), Point Minerva [Punta della Campanella]-all places in Lucania;

70. then the Bay of Puteoli [Bay of Naples], Syrren- tum [Sorrento], Herculaneum, a view of Mt. Vesuvius, Pompeii, Neapolis [Naples], Puteoli [Pozzuoli], the Lucrine Lake and Avernus, Baiae, Misenum [Miseno] (the name of a place now, but once the name of a Trojan soldier), Cumae, Liternum, the Volturnus River, the town of Volturnum [Volturno]-the lovely shores of Campania;

71. then Sinoessa, the Liris [Liri] River, Minturnae, Formiae [Formia], Fundi [Fondi], Tarracina [Terracina], Circeia (once the home of Circe), Antium [Anzio], Aphrodisium, Ardea, Laurentum, and Ostia on the near side of the Tiber.

72. Above it are Pyrgi, the Minio [Mignone] River, Castrum Novum [Torre Chiaruccia], Graviscae [Porto Clementino], Cosa, Tela- mon, Populonia [Porto Baratti], the Caecina [Cecina] River, and Pisae [Pisa]-Etruscan localities and rivers; after that comes what belongs to the Ligurians, Luna [Luni], Tigula, Genua [Genova/Genoa], Sabatia, and Albingaunum [Albenga]; then come the rivers Paulo [Paglione] and Varum [Var], both descending from the Alps, but the Varum some- what better known because it marks the boundary of Italy.

73. The Alps themselves spread over a considerable expanse from these shores and run in a long stretch, first to the north; then, after they have reached Germany, they go forth with an eastward thrust; and after dividing savage peoples from one another, they penetrate all the way to Thrace.

Gaul

74. Gaul, which is divided by Lake Lemannus [Lake Leman/Lake Geneva] and the Cebennici [Cevennes] Mountains into two parts, and which abuts the Tuscan Sea on one side, the Ocean on the other, reaches all the way to the Pyrenees from the Varum River on this side and from the Rhenus [Rhein/Rhine] on the far side. The part located beside Our Sea – it was once Gallia Bracata, now it is Gallia Narbonensis – is more cultivated and more plentifully sown and therefore also more productive.

75. The wealthiest of the cities are Vasio [Vaison la Romaine] (belonging to the Vocontii), Vienne (the Allobroges), Avennio [Avignon] (the Cavares), Nemausus [Nimes] (the Arecomici), Tolosa [Toulouse] (the Tectosages), Arausio [Orange] (the veterans of Legion II), Arelate [Arles] (the veterans of Legion VI), and Beterrae [Biziers] (the veterans of Legion VII). The colony, however, of the Atacini and of the veterans of Legion X (who once brought help to these lands) leads the pack and is now an honored name, Martius Narbo [Narbonne].

76. On the littoral there are a number of places with names, but cities are rare, because harbors are rare. The whole strip is exposed to the south wind and to the southwest wind.  Nicaea [Nice] is immediately next to the Alps; so is the town of the Deciates and also Antipolis [Antibes].

77. Then comes Forum Iulii [Frejis], a colony of veterans from Legion VIII; and at that point after Athenopolis [Saint-Tropez], Olbia, Taurois [Le Brusc?], and Citharistes [Ceyreste] comes Lacydon, the Port of Massilia, on which is Massilia [Marseilles] itself. This last city originated with Phocaeans, was long ago founded among violent peoples, but now borders on peoples as different as they are peaceful. It is amazing how easily these Phocaeans took up a foreign abode in those days yet still maintain their own tradition.

78. Between it and the Rhodanus [Rhone], Maritima Avaticorum sits beside a marsh, and the Marian Canal empties part of its river into the sea by means of a navigable channel. In general, the shore, Litus Lapideum [Lat., Rocky Beach; the Crau] as they call it, is undistinguished. Here, they report, while Hercules was fighting Alebion and Dercynos, the sons of Neptune, and when his arrows had run out, he was helped by a rain of rocks at the hands of Jupiter, whom he had invoked. You would believe that it had rained rocks-so numerously and so widely do they lie scattered all over!

79. The Rhodanus rises not far from the sources of the Ister and the Rhenus. It is then received by Lake Lemannus, retains its force, keeps itself intact through the middle of the lake, and emerges as powerful as it arrived. Then, on the opposite side, heading to the west, the river divides the Gauls for some distance; and later, with its course drawn southward, it enters Gallia Narbonensis. At this point it is voluminous, and it is now and then even more voluminous from the entrance of other rivers; and it debouches between the Volcan and Cavaran peoples.

80. Farther on are the marshes of the Volci, the Ledum [Les] River, the fort of Latara, and Mesua Hill, which is surrounded almost com- pletely by the sea, an island except where it is tied to the continent by a narrow mound. Then, descending from the Cebennae [Cevennes] Mountains, the Arauris [Herault] flows beside Agatha [Agde], the Orbis [Orb] beside Beterrae.

81. The Atax [Aude], descending from the Pyrenees, is slight and shallow wherever it comes with its original waters. At this point it retains its otherwise huge bed but is never navigable except when it reaches Narbo. When it is swollen from winter storms, however, this river routinely rises so high that it actually cannot contain itself. Lake Rubraesus, relatively spacious but slight of access where it lets the sea in, becomes the river basin.

82. Farther on is Leucata (the name of the coast) and the spring of Salsula [Fontaine de Salses], which flows down with waters that are not sweet but saltier than the sea’s. Beside Salsula is a plain that is bright green from a slight and slender marsh grass but supported atop the swamp that passes under it. Its middle section makes that clear, since it is cut off from the surrounding parts, floats like an island, and allows itself to be driven and pulled.

83. What is more, indeed, where these surrounding parts are dug all the way through to the bottom, the sea is revealed because it rises up from below. As a result, Greek writers, and even our own, thought it right, either from ignorance of the truth or else from the pleasure of lying (even for sensible writers), to pass on to posterity the story that in this region a fish was pulled from deep within the earth, because after the fish had penetrated from the sea to this place, it was killed by a blow from its captors and brought up through those holes.

84. Next is the coast of the Sordones and the small Telis and Ticis Rivers (both quite violent when swollen), the colony of Ruscino [Castel Rousillon], and the village of Eliberrae [Elne], which is the slender vestige of a once-great city and its once – great wealth. Then, between spurs of the Pyrenees, come the saltless Port Venus and the district of Cervaria [Cerbere], the boundary of Gaul.

Spain

85. The Pyrenees, to begin with, extend from here to the Britannic Ocean. Then, after shifting direction, the range bursts into the lands of Spain, and excluded from its smaller division to the right, it protracts its continuous sides in an uninterrupted path until it reaches the western shores after going across the entire province in a single dividing line.

86. Spain actually is girt by the sea except where it is contiguous with Gaul, and it is especially narrow at the places of contact. Spain extends gradually into Our Sea and Ocean, and becoming increasingly wider the farther west it goes, it becomes widest right there.  Spain is also teeming with men, horses, iron, lead, copper, silver, and gold, and it is so fertile that wherever it changes and is barren for lack of water, it still supports flax or esparto.

87. It is, however, dis- tinguished by three names. Part of it is called Tarraconensis, part Baetica, and part Lusitania [Portugal]. Tarraconensis borders on the Gauls at one extreme, on Baetica and Lusitania at the other. Where it looks south, it thrusts its sides along Our Sea; where it looks north, along Ocean. The Anas [Guadiana] River separates the other two regions there, and thus Baetica faces both seas – the Atlantic to the west, Our Sea to the south – while Lusitania is situated only along the Atlantic, but with its lateral extension to the north, its front to the west.

88. The most renowned of the inland cities in Tarraconensis were Palantia [Palencia] and Numantia (nowadays it is Caesaraugusta [Saragossa]); in Lusitania, Emerita [Merida]; and in Baetica, Astigi [Ecija], Hispal [Seville], and Corduba [C6rdova].

89. If, however, you coast along the shores, right after Cervaria comes the cliff that thrusts the Pyrenees out into the sea, next the Ticis River near Rhoda, next Clodianum near Emporiae, and then Mt. Jupiter. They call its western face the Stairs of Hannibal, because out – croppings of cliffs rise up from below, stepwise, between small spaces.

90. Then, near Tarraco, are the small towns of Blande, Iluro [Mataro], Baetulo [Madalona], Barcino [Barcelona], Subur, and Tolobi; small rivers, the Baetulo [Besos] beside Mt. Jupiter, the Rubricatum [Llobre- gat] on the shore of Barcino, and the Maius between Subur and Tolobis. Tarraco [Tarragona] is the city on these shores that is wealthiest in maritime resources. The moderate Tulcis [Francoli] River runs beside it, and on the farther side, the mighty Hiberus [Ebro] runs beside Dertosa [Tortosa].

91. From there the sea winds its way into the land, and then as soon as it is let in with a great sweep, it is divided into two bays by the promontory they call Ferraria [Cabo de la Nao].

92. The first is called the Bay of Sucro. It is the larger one and admits the sea with quite a large mouth, but the farther one enters it, the narrower it gets. This bay takes in the unimportant Sorobis [Serpis], Turia, and Sucro [Jticar] Rivers. It includes some cities too, in fact, but the best-known are Valen- tia [Valencia] and that famous city, Saguntum, which is renowned for its loyalty as well as its troubles.

93. Next, the Bay of Ilice holds Allo [Allone], Lucentia [Alicante], and Ilice [Elche] (whence its name). Here now the land goes farther into the sea and makes Spain broader than it had been.

94. At the same time, though, from the places mentioned in this vicinity to the starting point of Baetica, nothing needs to be reported except Carthage [Cartagena], which the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal founded.  On Baetica’s coast there are obscure towns, of which mention is relevant only for proper sequence. There is Urci on the Bay of Urci, as they call it; outside the bay are Abdera [Adra], Suel, Ex, Maenoba, Malaca [Malaga], Salduba, Lacippo, and Barbesula.

95. Then the sea becomes very narrow, and mountains constitute the closest shores between Europe and Africa. The Pillars of Hercules, as we said at the beginning, Abila and Calpes, each jut into the sea in fact, but Calpes more so and almost totally. Calpes is hollowed out to an amazing degree, and on its western face its side opens more or less halfway. From there, for those who enter, the whole grotto is reason- ably passable for almost its whole width.

96. There is a bay beyond that point, and on it is Carteia. Carteia, some think, used to be Tartes- sos.  Tingentera, which Phoenicians who crossed from Africa still inhabit – and where we’re from too – is located there. Then Melaria, Bello, and Baesippo [Barbate] occupy the shore of the Strait all the way to Point Juno. At this stage that promontory runs to the west and to Ocean with a sidewise ridge, and it faces that promontory in Africa that we had said was called Ampelusia.  It terminates Europe where Our Seas are situated.

Islands

97. The island of Gades [Cidiz], which meets travelers as they exit the Strait, is a reminder to mention all the other islands before the narrative proceeds, as we promised at the beginning, to the shores of Ocean and the earth’s periphery. There are a few islands in Maeotis – it seems eas- iest to begin there – but they are not all under cultivation, since they do not produce even range grass generously. That is the reason the meat of huge fish is dried by the inhabitants in the sun and ground to a powder for use as flour.

98. There are a few islands in the Pontus also. Leuce is thrust up opposite the mouth of the Borysthenes. It is relatively small and, because Achilles is buried there, has the eponym of Achillea. Not far from the Colchians is Aria, which was dedicated to Mars, as told in legend, and which produced birds that hurled their feathers like spears- along with the greatest carnage of newcomers. There are six islands among the mouths of the Ister, of which Peuce [Piczina – note the Peucini] is the best known and most important. Thynias [Kefken Adasi], next to the land of the Mariandyni, has a city that they call Bithynis because Bithynians live there.

99. Opposite the Thracian Bosphorus, two islands that are small and scarcely removed from one another were once believed, and said, to crash together: they are called Cyaneae and Symplegades.  In the Propontis, only Proconnesos is inhabited.

100. Outside the Hellespont, of the islands adjacent to the Asiatic regions, the most renowned are Tenedos, opposite the coast of Sigeum, and – in the order listed – those islands that spread out near the spur of the Taurus Mountains, and which some authors thought were called the Macardn [Grk., (Islands) of the Blessed], either because they were moderately blessed in climate and soil, or because Macar had held them under his own sway and that of his descendants:

101. in the Troad, Lesbos and on it once the five towns of Antissa, Pyrrha, Eresos, Methymna, Mytilene; in lonia, Chios and Samos; in Caria, Coos [Kos/Cos]; in Lycia, Rhodes. On the latter islands there are individual cities of the same name, and on Rhodes in the past there were, as well, the three cities of Lindos, Camiros, and Ialysos.

102. Those islands that lie – unluckily for those sailing by-directly opposite the spur of the Taurus Range are called Chelidonian.  Cyprus runs in an east-west direction into the biggest gulf that Asia takes in, and it lies more or less in its center. It stretches in a straight ridge between Cilicia and Syria, and as an island that at one time held nine kingdoms and now sustains a number of cities (the most renowned being Salamis, Paphos, and Old Paphos, where they claim Venus first emerged from the sea), Cyprus is huge.

103. Arados [Rfiad] is a small island in Phoenicia, and the whole island is coast-to-coast town, but it is a crowded town, because it is legal to build apartment buildings.  Canopos is small and lies before the so-called Canopic mouth of the Nile. Menelafis’ helmsman Canopus died there accidentally, and he gave his name to the island, which then gave its name to that mouth.

104. Pharos is linked to Alexandria by a bridge now, but once upon a time, as transmitted in the Homeric epic, it was removed from those shores by a whole day’s sail. If that was the case, it seems possible to researchers that the Nile provided the cause for such a great change. As long as the river dredges silt from its bed, and especially during the period while the river is dredging it up, the Nile adds the silt to the shoreline, increases the land mass, and extends the area of the increasing land mass into the neighboring shallows.

105. In Africa, opposite the greater Bay of Syrtis, is Euteletos; opposite the promontories of the lesser Syrtis are Menis [Jerba] and Cercina [Kerkenah]; opposite the Gulf of Carthage are Chyarae, Thylae, and Aegatae, memorable for the bloody Roman defeat.

106. Several additional islands are located off the shores of Europe: in the Aegean Sea near Thrace are Thasos, Imbros, Samothrace, Scandile, Polyaegos, Sciathos, Halonessos, and-opposite Mt. Athos-Lemnos, where at one time only women are said to have lived, after all the men had been slaughtered. The Gulf of Pagasa looks on Scyron and encloses Cicynethon.

107. Euboea causes Point Geraestos and Point Caphereus to protrude southward and Point Cenaeum northward. Euboea is never wide and has a breadth of two miles where it is narrowest, but it is long and lies along the whole of Boeotia, separated from its coastline by a narrow strait.

108. They call that strait Euripos. It has a swift current and flows in alternating directions seven times a day  and seven times a night, with its waves changing direction too. It flows so unusually that it frustrates even the winds as well as ships with the wind to their backs. There are some towns on the island, namely, Styra, Eretria, Pyrrha, Nesos, and Oichalia, but the wealthiest cities are Carystos and Chalchis.

109. In Atthis, Helene is the isle known for the adultery of Helen, and Salamis is even better known for the destruction of the Persian fleet. In the vicinity of the Peloponnesos, but still at this point on the Aegean side, are Pityussa and Aegina; off the coast of Epidaurus, among other obscure islands, Calauria, famous for Demosthenes’ demise at Troizene;

110. in the Myrtoin Sea, Cythera opposite Malea, as well as Theganusa and the isles of Oinussae opposite Mt. Acritas; on the Ionian Sea, Prote, Asteria, Cephallania, Neritos, Same, Zacynthos, Dulichium, and, among those not obscure, Ithaca, which is mainly illustrious for the name of Ulysses; in Epiros, the Echinades group and another group formerly called the Plotae, now called the Strophades; opposite the Ambracian Gulf, Leucadia [Leucas] and, bordering on the Adriatic Sea, Corcyra [Kerkira/Corfu]. These islands lie near the coasts of Thrace and Greece.

111. By contrast, farther out to sea are Melos, Olearos, Aegina, Cothonius, Thyatira, Gyaros, Hippuris, Dionysia, Cyanos, Chalcis, Icaria, Pinara, Nyspiros, Lebinthos, Calymnia, and Syme. These islands are called the Sporades, because they are scattered, but Ceos, Sicinos, Siphnos, Seriphos, Rhenea, Paros, Myconos, Syros, Tenos, Naxos, Delos, and Andros are called the Cyclades, because they lie in a circle.

112. Beyond these islands, in the middle of the sea at this point, huge and once inhabited by a hundred cities, Crete extends Point Samonium to the east, to the west Criu Metopon [Grk., Ram’s Brow]. It is similar to Cyprus except bigger, and it is notorious for its many legends (the arrival of Europa, Pasiphae’s and Ariadne’s loves, the Minotaur’s savagery and his death, the works of Daedalus and his escape, Talus’ lookout and his death), but especially because the locals point out as the virtually unambiguous indication that Jupiter was buried there the tomb on which his name is engraved.

113. Its best-known cities are Gnossos, Gortyn, Lyctos, Lycastos, Olopyxos, Therapnae, Cydonea, Moratusa, and Dictynna. Among its hills, because we are told that Jupiter was born there, Mt. Ida’s tradition is preeminent.

114. Off the coast of Crete are the islands of Astypalaea, Naumachos, Zephyre, Chryse, and Cau- dos; those three that they nevertheless call by one name, Musagorus; and Carpathos, from which the Carpathian Sea gets its name. In the Adriatic are Apsoros, Dyscelados, Absyrtis, Issa, Titana, Hydria, Electrides, Black Corcyra [Korchula], Linguarum, Diomedia, Aestria, Asine, and Pharos, which lies beside the coast of Brundisium, just as that other Pharos lies beside Alexandria.

115. Sicily was long ago, as they report, part of the continent and tied to Bruttium, but it was severed at a later time by the strait that belongs to the Sea of Sicily. That strait is narrow and moves in two directions. With one current it flows through to the Tuscan Sea, with the other to the Ionian Sea. It is frightful, violent, and renowned for the savage names of Scylla and Charybdis. Scylla is a rock, Charybdis the sea. Both are deadly to those who are driven onto them. Sicily itself is huge, and running in different directions with its three promontories, it looks like the Greek letter called “delta.”

116. The promontory that looks toward Greece is called Point Pachynum [Capo Passero]; Lilybaeum [Capo Boeo/Capo Lilybeo], the one that looks toward Africa; and Pelorias [Punta del Faro], the one that turns toward Italy and is opposite Scylla. Its namesake is the helmsman Pelorus, who was buried there by Hannibal. When Hannibal, as a political refugee from Africa, was traveling through these regions to Syria, he had killed Pelorus because he thought Pelorus had betrayed him. His reason was that as he scanned the horizon from some distance, the shores seemed to him to be contin- uous, and the sea did not seem to be passable at all.

117. The shore that extends from Pelorias to Pachynum, bordering on the Ionian Sea, produces these illustrious places: Messana [Messina], Tauromenium [Taormina], Catina [Catania], Megaris [Agosta], Syracusae [Siracusa/Syracuse], and-a marvel in this last city-Arethusa. The Fountain of Arethusa is the one where objects reappear that are thrown into the Alpheus, a river – as we have said – that flows on the Peloponnesos. Because of this phenomenon, the fountain is believed not to be connected to the sea but to drive its bed this far and to rise again here after it has sunk below the surface of land and sea.

118. Between Pachynum and Lilybaeum are Agragas [Agrigento], Heraclea, and Thermae; between Lilybaeum and Pelorias are Panhormus [Palermo] and Himera. Farther inland, to be sure, are Leontini [Lentini], Centuripinum [Centuripe], Hybla, and several other cities. Henna [Enna] has special fame because of the temple of Ceres.

119. Of the mountains, Eryx [Erice] is mentioned mainly because of the sanctuary of Venus founded by Aeneas, Aetna because in olden times it bore the Cyclopes and nowadays burns with uninterrupted fire.  Of the rivers, the Himera needs to be mentioned, because it rises exactly in the middle of the island and descends in opposite directions. On both sides that river divides the island. It comes down to the Libyan Sea on one side, to the Tuscan Sea on the other.

120. Near Sicily, in the Sicilian Strait, is the island of Aeaee, which Calypso reportedly inhabited; toward Africa, Gaulos [Gozo], Melita [Malta], and Cossura [Pantelleria]; nearer Italy, Galata and those seven that they call the Isles of Aeolus [the Lipari Islands] – Osteodes [Ustica], Lipara [Lipari], Heraclea [Alicudi], Didyma [Salina], Phoenicusa [Filicudi], and the two like Aetna, Hiera [Vulcano] and Strongyle [Strom- boli], which burn with uninterrupted flame.

121. But to move on, Pithecusa [Ischia], Leucothea, Aenaria, Sidonia, Capreae [Capri], Prochyta [Procida], Pontiae [Ponza], Pandateria, Sinonia, and Palmaria [Palmarola] lie on the Italic coast on this side of the Tiber’s mouth.

122. Farther on there are some small islands, Dian- ium [Giannutri], Igilium [Giglio], Carbania, Urgo, Ilva [Elba], and Capraria [Capraia], as well as two large islands divided by a strait. Of these two, Corsica is nearer to the Etruscan coast. It is narrow between its lateral extensions but long, and it is cultivated by barbarians except around the colonies of Aleria and Mariana.

123. Sardinia, which also borders on the African Sea, is equal and squarish on all sides except that its western flank is narrower than its eastern, and it is nowhere any wider than Corsica is long. In other regards, Sardinia is fertile, has bet- ter soil than it does climate, and is almost as malarious1ol as it is pro- ductive. Of its peoples the most ancient are the Ilienses; of its cities, Caralis [Cagliari] and Sulci [San Antioco].

124. In Gaul, by contrast, the only islands fit to report are the Stoechades [Iles d’Hyeres], which are scattered from the coast of Liguria all the way to Massilia. The Balearic Isles, located in Spain across from the coast of Tarraco, are not far from one another and are designated by size; some are the Greater Balearic Isles [Mallorca], others the Lesser [Menorca]. The forts of Iamno [Ciudadela] and Mago [Mahon] are on the Lesser Balearic Isles; on the Greater Balearics are the colonies of Palma and Pollentia [Pollenca].

125. Near the promontory they call Ferraria in the Bay of Sucro, the isle of Ebusos [Ibiza] has a city by the same name. Only for grain is it unproductive; it is rather bountiful for other crops. The island is so free of all harmful animals that it does not produce even those wild animals that are gentle, nor does it sustain them if they are imported.

126. Facing Ebusos is Colubraria [Formentera], which it comes to mind to mention because, although the island is teem- ing with many a harmful breed of snake and is uninhabitable for that reason, it is still without danger and safe for anyone who enters within a space demarcated by a circle of dirt from Ebusos. Those same snakes that otherwise habitually attack people they meet stay far away from the sight of that dust – in terror – as if the sight were a kind of poison.

Book III
Around the World-the Circle of Ocean from the Pillars of Hercules

1. The coastline of Our Sea has been described now, and the islands it includes too.  What is left is the periphery, as we said at the outset,  that Ocean encircles. The huge and boundless sea is in motion, being stirred by great tides (that is what they call its movements). Sometimes it inun- dates fields; other times it strips them and runs back-not one field and another in turn, and not going back and forth between opposite coasts in alternating advances with full thrust, now on these fields, now on those. Instead, after it floods out from its center point equally onto all the shores of land and island, even though they lie in different direc- tions, Ocean gathers itself back into its center point from those shores and returns to its original condition. It always moves with so much force that it even drives back great rivers and either sweeps away the creatures of the earth or else strands marine life there.

2. It is, moreover, not quite understood [a] whether the world3 causes that process by its own breathing and restores all around the water that has been pulled back with its breath – if, as pleases the more learned, the world is a single animate being – or [b] whether there are certain caves sunk below the surface where the returned waters reside and whence they rise up copiously again, or [c] whether the moon is the explanation of such great movements. The tides certainly vary with the moon’s rising and setting, and we have ascertained that they ebb and flow, not regularly at the same moment, but as the moon waxes and wanes.

Iberian Peninsula

3. The Atlantic and the line of Baetica’s oceanfront receive those who travel this way and follow the right-hand coast.  This coastline is virtually straight as far as the Anas River, except where it draws back gradually once or twice. The Turduli and Bastuli are its inhabitants.

4. In the nearest bay is a harbor they call the Port of Gades and a woods they call Wild-Olive Grove; then a fort, Ebora, on the coast; and far from the coast the colony of Hasta [Mesa de Asta]. On the coast again there is an altar and a temple of Juno, and on the sea itself, the Monument of Caepio, which is set on a cliff rather than an island.

5. The Baetis [Guadalquivir] River, coming from the Tarraconensis region more or less through the middle of this one, runs down for a long time in a single stream, just as it originates. Later on, after it has made a large lake not far from the sea, a twin rises up as if from a new source, and the river flows on in separate beds as sizably as it had arrived in its single bed. Then a second bay curves all the way to the province’s boundary, and the small towns of Olintigi, Onoba [Huelva], and Laepa [Lepe] line it.

6. By contrast, on the other side of the Anas, where it faces the Atlantic Ocean, Lusitania at first goes on with a mighty thrust into the sea; then it stops and recedes farther than Baetica does.

7. Where it juts out, the coast spreads into three promontories, with the sea being received in two folds. The promontory beside the Anas is called Wedge Field [Cabo de Santa Maria], because it runs out from a wide base and gradually hones itself into a point; they call the second one Sacred Point [Cabo de Sao Vicente] and the one beyond it Great Point [Cabo da Roca]. On Wedge Field are Myrtili [Mertola], Balsa [Torre de Tavira], and Ossonoba [Faro]; on Sacred Point, Laccobriga [Lagos] and Port Hannibal [Portimao]; on Great Point, Ebora [Evora].

8. Bays lie between the promontories. Salacia is on the first one; on the second are Ulisippo [Lisboa/Lisbon] and the mouth of the Tagus [Tejo/Tajo], a river that generates jewels and gold. From these promontories to the part that has receded, a huge bend opens up, and on it are the Old Turduli and the towns of the Turduli as well as the Munda [Mondego] River, which flows broadly more or less halfway up the coast of the last promontory, and the Durius [Duero] River, which washes the foot of the same promontory.

9. The oceanfront there has a straight bank for a consider- able distance and then protrudes a little bit where it takes a moderate bend. At that time, drawn back again and again and lying in a straight line, the coast extends to the promontory we call Celtic Point [Punta de Narija].

10. Celtic peoples – except for the Grovi from the Durius to the bend – cultivate the whole coast here, and the rivers Avo [Ave], Celadus [Cavado], Nebis [Neyva], Minius [Mifio], and Limia (also known as the Oblivion) flow through their territory. The bend itself includes the city of Lambriaca [Lambre] and receives the Laeros [Lerez] and Ulla Rivers.

11. The Praetamarici inhabit the section that juts out, and through their territory run the Tamaris [Tambre] and Sars [Sar] Rivers, which arise not far away – the Tamaris next to Port Ebora, the Sars beside the Tower of Augustus, which has the famous inscription. The Supertamarici and the Neri, the last peoples on that stretch, inhabit the remainder. This is as far as its western shores reach.

12. From there the coast shifts northward with its entire flank from Celtic Point all the way to Scythian Point. The shoreline, uninterrupted except for moderate recesses and small promontories, is almost straight until it reaches the Cantabri.

13. On that shore, first of all, are the Artabri (actually a people of Celtic ancestry), then the Astyres. In the territory of the Artabri a bay admits the sea through a narrow mouth but encloses it with its not-so-narrow grasp; it rings the city of Adrobrica and the mouths of four rivers. Two mouths are little known even among locals; through the other two the Mearus and the lubia Rivers make their outlets. On the coast that belongs to the Astyres is the town of Noege, and on the peninsula sit the three so-called Altars of Sestius. These altars are dedicated in the name of Augustus, and they make famous a land previously undistinguished.

14. From what they call Salia River, though, the coast begins to recede gradually, and the breadth of still-wide Spain begins to contract more and more. The land narrows so much that where it abuts Gaul, its breadth is less by half than where it extends its western shore.

15. The Cantabri and Vardulli occupy this stretch; there are several peoples and rivers among the Cantabri, but their names cannot be couched in our language. The Saunium [Saja] descends through the territory of the <… > and of the Salaeni, the Namnasa [Nansa] down through the territory of the Autrigones and Orgenomescos, and the <… >. One nation, the Vardulli, spreading from here to the promontory of the Pyrenees, terminates the Spains.

Gaul

16. Gaul’s second coast follows. At first its shoreline does not go out to sea at all, but after a while, proceeding almost as far beyond Spain as Spain had receded, it comes to lie opposite the lands of the Cantabri.  The coast then bends in a great curve and turns its flank so that it faces west. Then turning to face north, the coastline unfolds a second time in a long and straight stretch up to the banks of the Rhenus [Rhein/ Rhine].

17. The land is rich, primarily in grain and fodder, and it is lovely with its vast woods. It is conducive to good health and rarely populated with animals of a harmful kind, but it supports-with difficulty, and not everywhere-those plants that are intolerant of the cold.

18. The peoples are crude, superstitious, and sometimes even so monstrous that they used to believe that to the gods the best and most pleasing sacrificial victim was a human being. Traces of their savagery remain, even though it has been banned now. Nevertheless, after they have led their consecrated human victims to the altars, they still graze them slightly, although they do hold back from the ultimate bloodshed. And yet, they have both their own eloquence and their own teachers of wisdom, the Druids.

19. These men claim to know the size and shape of the earth and of the universe, the movements of the sky and of the stars, and what the gods intend. In secret, and for a long time (twenty years), they teach many things to the noblest males among their people, and they do it in a cave or in a hidden mountain defile. One of the precepts they teach – obviously to make them better for war- has leaked into common knowledge, namely, that their souls are eternal and that there is a second life for the dead. Therefore they cremate and bury with the dead things that are suitable for the living. Long ago, traders’ accounts and debt collection were deferred until they died, and some individuals happily threw themselves onto the pyres of their loved ones as if they were going to live with them!

20. The whole region they inhabit is Gallia Comata. Its peoples have three very distinguished names, and those peoples are separated by mighty rivers. In fact the Aquitani reach from the Pyrenees to the Garunna [Garonne] River, the Celts from there to the Sequana [Seine], and from there to the Rhenus, the Belgae. Of the Aquitani the most famous are the Ausci; of the Celts, the Haedui; of the Belgae, the Treveri. The wealthiest cites are Augusta [Trier] among the Treveri, Augustodunum [Autun] among the Haedui, and among the Aquitani, Eliumberrum [Auch].

21. The Garunna, which descends from the Pyrenees, flows shallow for a long time and is barely navigable except when swollen by winter rain or melted snow. But when it has been increased by the intrusions of the seething Ocean, and while those same waters are receding, the Garunna drives on its own waters and those of Ocean. The river, being considerably fuller, becomes wider the farther it advances, and at the end it is like a strait. It not only carries bigger ships but rises like the raging sea and violently buffets those who sail it, at least if the wind pushes one way and the current another.

22. In the river is the island named Antros, which the locals think floats on the surface and is raised up by the rising waves. The reasons they think so are [a] that while the adjacent shore seems more elevated, the river covers it when its level rises, whereas prior to flooding only this island is surrounded by water, and [b] that what the banks and hills had stood opposite (so that it was not seen) is completely visible at that time as if because of being on higher ground.

23. From the Garunna’s outlet begins the horizontal stretch of land that runs into the sea, as well as the shore that lies opposite the coast of the Cantabri and that bends from the Santoni all the way to the Ossismi (with other peoples living in between). Indeed, after the Ossismi, the oceanfront again faces back to the north, and it reaches to the farthest people of Gaul, the Morini. And it does not have anything more noteworthy than the port they call Gesoriacum [Boulogne].

24. The Rhenus, cascading down from the Alps, makes-more or less at its source-two lakes, Lake Venetus [Upper Bodensee/Upper Lake Constance] and Lake Acronus [Lower Bodensee/Lower Lake Constance]. Then solid for a long time and descending in a defined bank, not far from the sea it spreads in two directions. To the left the Rhenus actually remains a river until it reaches its outlet. On the right, however, the river is at first narrow and unchanged, but later its banks recede over a vast expanse. At this point it is no longer called a river but a huge lake – Lake Flevo – where it has flooded the fields. It surrounds an island of the same name [Vlieland], becomes narrower again, and again makes its outlet as a river.

Germany

25. Germany extends on the near side from the banks of the Rhenus as far as the Alps; on the south from the very Alps; on the east from the frontier with the Sarmatian peoples; and where it faces north, from the oceanfront.

26. The people who live there are extraordinary in courage, as in physique, and thanks to their natural ferocity they exercise both prodigiously – their minds by making war, their bodies by habitual hard work but above all by habitual exposure to the cold. They live naked before they reach puberty, and childhood is very long among them. The men dress in wool clothing or the bark of trees even during the harsh winter.

27. They have not only a tolerance for swimming but a fancy for it. They wage war with their neighbors, and they provoke the causes of those wars for sheer pleasure, not for the pleasure of rul- ing or enlarging what they possess (since they do not cultivate in earnest even what is already in their possession), but simply so that what lies around them may be laid waste.

28. They consider that right lies in might, so much so that not even brigandage shames them, pro- vided that they are good to their guests and compliant for their suppliants. They are so crude and uncivilized in their way of life that they even eat raw or fresh-killed meat, or else they eat meat that has been frozen in the actual hides of cattle and wild animals after they have softened the meat by working it with their own hands and feet.

29. The land itself is not easily passable, because of its many rivers; it is rugged on account of its numerous mountains; and to a large extent it is impassable with its forests and swamps. Of the swamps, the Suesia, the Metia, and the Melsyagum are the biggest. Of the forests, the Her- cynian and some others that have names do exist, but because it covers a distance of sixty days’ march, the Hercynian Forest is as much better known as it is bigger than the others.

30. Of the mountains, excepting those with names scarcely to be pronounced by a Roman mouth, the tallest are Mt. Taunus and Mt. Retico. Of the rivers that pass into the territories of other peoples, the most famous are the Danube and the Rhodanus [Rhone]; of those that go into the Rhenus, the Moenis [Main] and the Lupia [Lippe]; and of those that go into the Ocean, the Amissis [Ems], the Visurgis [Weser], and the Albis [Elbe].

31. On the other side of the Albis, the huge Codanus Bay [Baltic Sea] is filled with big and small islands. For this reason, where the sea is received within the fold of the bay, it never lies wide open and never really looks like a sea but is sprinkled around, rambling and scattered like rivers, with water flowing in every direction and crossing many times. Where the sea comes into contact with the mainland, the sea is contained by the banks of islands, banks that are not far offshore and that are virtually equidistant everywhere. There the sea runs a narrow course like a strait, then, curving, it promptly adapts to a long brow of land.

32. On the bay are the Cimbri and the Teutoni; farther on, the farthest people of Germany, the Hermiones.

Golding version on Germany

From hencefoorth to the Alpes, Germanie is bounded on the West, with the Rhyne, on the South, with the Alpes themselues, on the East, with the borders of the Nations of Sarmatia, and on the North, with the Oc∣cean Sea. The Inhabitants are huge of body, and hautie of minde, and according to the sauadgenesse that is bredde in them, doo inure both of them, as well their mindes to battell, as their bodies to the custome of paines taking. In the greatest colde that is, they goe naked, tyll they growe to mans estate, and childe-hood is verie long a∣mong them. The men goe cloathed in Mandilions, or in barkes of Trées: and be the winter neuer so sharpe, they not onelie can endure to swimme, but also haue a delight in it. They be at warre with their next borderers, and they picke quarrelles to them of pleasure, and not of desire to raigne, or to inlarge the thinges which they possesse, (for they doo not greatlie manure the grounds which they haue) but to make Countries about them waste. Force is their Lawe, insomuch that they be not ashamed euen of robberie and murther: onely they be good to Straungers, & mercifull to suppliaunts. They be so hard and carelesse of their fare, that they féede euen vpon rawe fleshe, either new killed, or softened by kneading it with their handes and féete, in the skinnes of the Cattell and wilde Beastes themselues, after it is stiffe for colde.

The Land is troublesome with the multitudes of Rivuers, combersome with the multitude of Mountaines, and for a great parte vntrauelable for Wooddes, Fennes, and Marishes. Of Fennes and Marishes, the greatest are Sulcia, Mesia, and Melsiagum. Of Wooddes, the greatest is Hercynia. There are some other also that beare name, but as Hercynia is the greatest, for it is thrée score dayes iourney ouer, so is it also the best knowne. The highest of the Mountaines, are Taurus and Rhetico, sauing those which it is scarcelie possible for the tongue of a Romane to vtter.

The notablest Riuers, of them that runne foorth into o∣ther Nations, are Danubius, and Rhodanus: of them that runne into the Rhyne, Maenus, and Lupia: of them that fall into the Occean, Amisius, Visurgis, and Albis. Uppon the Riuer Albis, is the great gulfe called Codanus, full of Ilandes, both great and small. The sharpe Sea which is receyued into the bosome of those shores, dooth no where beare any great breadth, nor any likenesse of a Sea, but is shed out wanderinglie and dispearsedlie, after the likenesse of Riuers, by waters that runne into it, and oftentimes runne cleane through it. Where it beateth vpon the shores, it is hemmed in with the bankes of Ilands not farre distant asunder, so as it is euerie where almost of a lyke scantling, narrowe, and resembling an arme of the Sea, bowing and bending from place to place with a long brew. In it are the Cimbrians, and Theutons, and beyond them the Hermions, which are the vttermost people of Germanie.

Sarmatia

33. Sarmatia, wider to the interior than toward the sea, is separated by the Vistula [Wisla/Vistula] River from the places that follow, and where the river reaches in, it goes all the way to the Ister River. Its people are very close to the Parthians in dress and in weaponry, but the rougher the climate, the cruder their disposition.

34. They do not live in cities or even in fixed abodes. Insofar as pastures have lured them on, or insofar as an enemy’s flight or pursuit has forced them out, they live in camps all the time and drag their possessions and their wealth with them. They are warlike, free, unconquered, and so savage and cruel that women also go to war side by side with men; and so that women may be suited for action, their right breast is cauterized as soon as they are born. As a result, that breast, now exposed and ready to withstand blows, develops like a man’s chest.

35. Archery, horseback riding, and hunting are a girl’s pursuits; to kill the enemy is a woman’s military duty, so much so that not to have struck one down is considered a scandal, and virginity is the punishment for those women.

Golding version on Sarmatia 

Sarmatia being broader innermore, then at the Seas side, is deuided from the former Coūtries, by the riuer Visula, from whence it extendeth backe to the riuer Ister. The people in their behauiour and Armour, re∣semble much the Parthians. But as their Countrie is of sharper ayre, so be they of fiercer disposition. They abide not in Citties, no nor in any certaine dwelling places: but as pasturage prouoketh them, or as the enimie fléeing or pursuing, giueth them cause, so doo they euer conuey their goodes and Cattell with them, dwelling alwayes in Tents lyke warriers, frée & vnbridled, and so vnmeasurablie fierce and cruell, that euen their women goe to battell with the men, & to the intent they may be the fitter for the purpose, as soone as they be borne, their right pappes are seared, that the hand which is to be put foorth to seruice, maye be the more at libertie to strike, and their breast become the more manlike. To bend a bowe, to hunt, and to ride, are the tasks of Maidens. To encounter the enimie, is the wages of wo∣men growen: insomuch, that not to haue stricken an enimie, is counted a heinous crime, and for their punishment, they be enioyned to liue Maidens still.

Scythia

36. After that, the Scythian peoples – almost all designated under one name as the Belcae – inhabit the Asian frontier except where winter remains continuous and the cold remains unbearable. On the Asiatic littoral, first of all, the Hyperboreans are located beyond the north wind, above the Riphaean Mountains, and under the very pole of the stars, where the sun rises, not every day as it does for us, but for the first time at the vernal equinox, and where it eventually sets at the autumnal equinox. Therefore, for six months daylight is completely uninter- rupted, and for the next six months night is completely uninterrupted.

37. The land is narrow, exposed to the sun, and spontaneously fruitful. Its inhabitants live in the most equitable way possible, and they live  longer and more happily than any mortals. To be sure, because they delight in their always festive leisure, they know no wars, no disputes, and they devote themselves primarily to the sacred rites of Apollo. According to tradition, they sent their firstfruits to Delos initially in the hands of their own virgins, and later they sent them through peoples who handed them on in succession to farther peoples.  They preserved that custom for a long time until it was profaned by the sacrilege of those peoples. The Hyperboreans inhabit groves and forests, and when a sense of having been satisfied by life (rather than boredom) has gripped them, they cheerfully wreathe themselves in flowers and actually throw themselves into the sea from a particular cliff. For them that is the finest death ritual.

38. The Caspian Sea first breaks into the land like a river, with a strait as small as it is long, and after it has entered by its straight channel, the sea is diffused into three bays.  Opposite its very mouth, it passes into the Bay of Hyrcania; on the left, into Scythian Bay; and on the right, into the one they call by the name of the whole, Caspian Bay. The sea as a whole is violent, savage, without harbors, exposed to storms everywhere, as well as crowded with sea-monsters more than any other sea is, and for all these reasons it is not fully navigable. To the right as you enter, the Scythian Nomads occupy the shores of the strait.

39. To the interior, beside Caspian Bay, are the Caspians and Amazons (at least the ones they call the Sauromatidae); alongside the Bay of Hyrcania are the Albani, the Moschi, and the Hyrcani; and on Scythian Bay are the Amardi, the Pestici, and, at this point near the strait, the Derbices. Many rivers, great and small, flow into that bay, but the famous one, the <… >, descends in a single bed from the Ceraunian Mountains and makes its outlet into the Caspian in two beds.

40. The Araxes [Araks], which cascades down from the side of the Taurus Range, slips along peacefully and quietly as long as it slices through the plains of Armenia, and it is not clear which way it is moving even if you watch it closely. When the Araxes goes down into rougher terrain, is squeezed to either side by cliffs, and is that much swifter because it is that much narrower, the river becomes as a result rough and choppy alongside the crags that block its path. Because of that it rolls on with a mighty crashing and roaring, so rapid that where it is about to drop precipitously onto lower-lying terrain, the Araxes does not even change its water’s direction but shoots the water straight out beyond its channel. The river propels itself in the air at a height of more than a iugerum, its waters suspended in midair without a riverbed.  Then, after it descends in a curve with its stream bent like a bow, the river becomes tranquil, and again silently and scarcely moving through the plains, it rolls out to the coastline there.

41. The Cyrus [Kura] and Cambyses [Yori] Rivers, produced from springs near the roots of Mt. Coraxicus, travel in different directions. Both flow down through the territories of the Hiberi and the Hyrcani for a long time with their beds very far apart. Later, after entering the same lake not far from the sea, they arrive at the Bay of Hyrcania in a single outlet.

42. The rivers laxartes [Syrdarya] and Oxos [Amudarya] go from the regions of the Sogdiani, through Scythia’s deserts, into Scythian Bay. The former is large at its source, but the latter becomes larger by the incursion of other rivers. The latter rushes for a consider- able distance from east to west, bends for the first time beside the Dahae, and, with its course turned to the north, opens its mouth between the Amardi and the Pestici.

43. The forests also bear other fierce animals, but they even bear tigers – Hyrcanian ones, to be sure – a savage breed of wild animal so swift that they easily, and typically, track a mounted rider, even one passing at a distance; and they do it not once only but several times, even when the trail is retraced each time right from where it began. The explanation comes from the fact that when that proverbial horseman runs off with stolen tiger cubs, and once he has let one of the several cubs go to thwart the fury of the adult animals as they near the city, these tigers pick up the abandoned cub and bring it back to their den. They go back again rather a lot and do the same thing until the fleeing thief reaches a more populous locale than the tigers dare to approach.

44. For quite some time it was unclear what lay beyond Caspian Bay, whether it was the same Ocean or a hostile, cold land that extended without a border and without end.

45. But in addition to the natural philosophers and Homer, who all said that the entire known world was surrounded by sea, there is Cornelius Nepos, who is more dependable as an authority because he is more modern. Nepos, however, adduces Quintus Metellus Celer as witness of the fact, and he records that Metellus reported it as follows. When Celer was proconsul of Gaul, certain Indians were presented to him as a gift by the king of the Boii. By asking what route they had followed to reach there, Celer learned that they had been snatched by storm from Indian waters, that they had traversed the intervening region, and that finally they had arrived on the shores of Germany. Ergo, the sea is continuous, but the rest of that same coast is frozen by the unremitting cold and is therefore deserted.

Islands

46. Next to these shores, which we have traced from the angle of Baetica all the way here, also lie many obscure islands that have no names. Of those islands not happily passed by, though, Gades is on the Strait. That island is separated from the continent by a narrow space, as if by a river, and has an almost straight bank where it lies nearer to the main- land. Where the island faces Ocean it reaches into the sea with two promontories, and the shoreline in between recedes. On one prong it supports a temple of Aegyptian Hercules famous for its founders, its cult, its age, and its wealth. The Tyrians founded the temple, and Hercules’ bones, buried there, show why the place is consecrated. The temple began its existence in the Trojan era, and time has fed its wealth.

47. In Lusitania are the isle of Erythia, which we are told was the home of Geryon, and other islands without fixed names. The fields of Erythia are so fertile that as soon as grain is planted, as soon as the seed falls to the ground and renews the crop, they produce at least seven harvests, sometimes even more. On the Celtic coast are a number of islands that, because they are all rich in lead, people call by one name, the Cassiterides [Grk., Tin Islands; Isles of Scilly].

48. In the Britannic Sea, opposite the coast of the Ossismi, the isle of Sena [Sein] belongs to a Gallic divinity and is famous for its oracle, whose priestesses, sanctified by their perpetual virginity, are reportedly nine in number. They call the priestesses Gallizenae and think that because they have been endowed with unique powers, they stir up the seas and the winds by their magic charms, that they turn into whatever animals they want, that they cure what is incurable among other peoples, that they know and predict the future, but that it is not revealed except to sea-voyagers and then only to those traveling to consult them.

49. Next, as to what kind of place Britain is and what kind of people it produces, information that is more certain and better established will be stated. The reason is that – lo and behold! – the greatest princeps is opening the long-closed island, and as conqueror of previously unsubdued and previously unknown peoples, the princeps brings with him the proof of his own accomplishments, since he will reveal in his triumph as much as he has laid claim to in war.

50. Moreover, just as we have thought until now, Britain projects between the west and the north in a wide angle and looks toward the mouths of the Rhenus. It then draws its sides back obliquely, facing Gaul with one side, Germany with the other; then returning with a continuous line of straight shore on its rear side, Britain again wedges itself into two different angles-being triangular and very much like Sicily. Britain is flat, huge, fertile, but more generously so for what feeds sheep than for what sustains humans.

51. It supports groves and meadows and colossal rivers that sometimes flow to the sea, some- times back again, with alternating currents, and certain other rivers that produce gems and pearls. It supports peoples and their kings, but all are uncivilized. The farther from the sea, the more ignorant they are of other kinds of wealth, being wealthy only in sheep and land, and- whether for beauty or for some other reason-they have their bodies dyed blue.

52. They produce, nevertheless, the causes of war and actual wars, and they take turns harassing one another constantly, mainly because they have a strong desire to rule and a strong drive to expand their holdings. They make war not only on horseback or on foot but also from two-horse chariots and cars armed in the Gallic fashion – they call them covinni – on which they use axles equipped with scythes.

53. On the far side of Britain, luverna [Ireland] is more or less equal in area, but it is oblong with equally extended lateral coastlines. Its cli- mate is hideous for ripening seeds, but the island is so luxuriant with grass – not only abundant but sweet-that sheep stuff themselves in a fraction of the day, and unless they are kept from the pasture, they burst from feeding too long. Its inhabitants are undisciplined and ignorant of all virtue, to a greater degree than any other nation, and they are very much inexperienced in piety.

54. The thirty Orcades [Orkney Islands] are separated by narrow spaces between them; the seven Haemodae [Denmark] extend opposite Germany in what we have called Codanus Bay; of the islands there, Scadinavia, which the Teutoni still hold, stands out as much for its size as for its fertility besides.

55. Because of the sea’s tidal ebb and flow, and because the distance between them is sometimes covered by waves and other times bare, what faces the Sarmatae sometimes seems to be islands and at other times seems to be one continuous land mass.

56. In addition to what is handed down in legend, I discover – in authors whom I am not embarrassed to follow – that on these islands are the Oeonae [Grk., Birds of Prey], who feed only on oats and the eggs of marsh birds, and that the Hippodes [Grk., Horsefeet], with their equine hooves, are also there, and the Panotii [Grk., All-Ears] too, who for clothing have big ears broad enough to go around their whole body (they are otherwise naked).

57. Thule is located near the coast of the Belcae, who are celebrated in Greek poetry and in our own. On it — because there the sun rises far from where it will set — nights are necessarily brief, but all winter long they are as dark as anywhere, and in summer, bright. All summer the sun moves higher in the sky at this time, and although it is not actually seen at night, the sun nevertheless illuminates adjacent places when its radiance is close by; but during the solstice there is no night, because at that time the sun is now more visible and shows not only its brilliance but most of itself too.

58. Talge [Cheleken], on the Caspian Sea, is fertile without being cultivated and is abundant in every root crop and fruit, but the local peoples consider it an abomination and a sacrilege to touch what grows there. They think that these things have been prepared for the gods and must be saved for the gods. Alongside those coasts that we have called deserted lie a number of equally deserted islands, which, being without names of their own, are called the Scythian Islands.

India and the East

59. The route curves from here to the Eastern Sea and to the earth’s east- ern rim. This coast, which is first impassable because of the snows and then uncultivated because of the monstrous savagery of the inhabi- tants, reaches from Scythian Point to Point Colis [Cape Comorin]. The Androphagoe and the Sacae are Scyths, and they are separated by a region that is uninhabitable because it is teeming with wild animals.

60. Next, monstrous beasts again render vast tracts unsafe all the way to Mt. Tabis, which overhangs the sea. At a distance from there the Taurus Range rises. The Seres [Lat., Silk People] are in between, a people full of justice and best known for the trade they conduct in absentia, by leav- ing their goods behind in a remote location…

Africa’s Atlantic Coast

100. From that point begins the oceanfront that faces west and is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean. The Aethiopians take up its first part, but no one takes up the middle, which is either parched, covered with sand, or infested with snakes. Islands that the Hesperides reportedly lived in are located off the coast of the parched region.

101. On the sandy part is Mt. Atlas, which rises abruptly.  It is, in fact, precipitous (with its deep- cut cliffs everywhere), inaccessible, and more impenetrable the higher it rises. Mt. Atlas rises right into the clouds since its peak is higher than can be seen, and it reportedly not only reaches the sky and the stars with its peak but even holds them up.

102. Opposite the sandy part, the Fortunate Isles [Canary Islands] abound in spontaneously generated plants; and with various ones always producing new fruit in rapid succession, the islands nourish people who want for nothing, and whose islands are more blissfully productive than others are.  One of the islands is primarily famous for the uniqueness of its two springs: those who have sipped the one laugh to death; the cure for those so affected is to drink from the other.

103. Next after the stretch that the wild beasts infest are the Himantopodes [Grk., Spindleshanks], hunched and rubber-legged, who reportedly slither rather than walk; then the Pharusii, who were well-off in the days when Hercules went to the Hesperides, but who are now squalid and, except for eating mutton, very poor.

104. Hereafter richer fields and lovely meadows abound in citron, terebinth, and ivory. Not even the coasts of the Nigritae and the Gaetuli, who are quite nomadic, are infertile. Those coasts are very famous for purple and murex – the most effective dyeing materials. Anything they have dyed is instantly recognizable anywhere.

105. The remainder is the outer coast of Mauretania and Africa’s extreme corner as it comes to its last point. The region is richly endowed, but less so, with those same sources of wealth.  As to the rest, it is even richer in soil and so fertile that it not only yields in extreme abundance the kinds of grain that are sown but also puts forth freely some kinds that are not sown.

106. Here Antaeus reportedly ruled as king.  A sign-and quite a famous one-of this legend is also visible, namely, the modest hill that looks like a man reclining on his back, which the locals report is the funeral mound of Antaeus.  As a consequence, when any part of the hill has become eroded, the rains regularly sprinkle the ground, and they keep coming until the erose sections are restored.

107. Some humans occupy the forests, but being less nomadic than those we have just mentioned, others live in cities. The wealthiest cities, albeit the wealthiest among small ones, are considered to be Gilda, Volubilis, and Banasa, all far from Ocean, but nearer to it Sala and Lixos [Larache], which is right on the Lixus [Lukkus] River. Farther on is the colony of Zilia, and the Zilia River, and the place we started from, Point Ampelusia, which now turns into Our Strait, which is the terminus both of this work and of the Atlantic coastline.

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April 26, 2017