The Raffelstetten Tolls is an interesting document dated to 903-906 describing a marketplace in today’s Austria. Thought it’d be interesting to put it up here. The English translation (forgive the laziness) belongs to Jonathan Jarrett whose blog may be found here.
The regulations are in the Book 3 of the Codex traditionis ecclesiae pataviensis olim laureacensis aka Codex Lonsdorfianus (because of the Passau bishop, Otto von Lonsdorf) which sits in the Bavarian Main State Archives (BayHStA München HL Passau 3).
Inquisitio de theloneis Raffelstettensis
Noverit omnium fidelium orthodoxorum, presentium scilicet ac futurorum, industria , qualiter questus clamorque cunctorum Bawariorum, episcoporum videlicet, abbatum ac comitum omniumque , qui in orientales partes iter habebant, ante Hlodowicum regem venerant dicentes se iniusto theloneo et iniqua muta constrictos in illis partibus et coartatos. Ille vero secundum morem antecessorum regum hoc benignis auribus audiens Arboni marchioni precepit , quatenus cum iudicibus orientalium, quibus hoc notum fieret, investigaret ad iura thelonica modumque thelonii exploraret; nuntios suos Theotmarum archiepiscopum, Purchardum Pataviensis ecclesic presulem et Otacharium comitem dedit, ut hoc in suo loco iuste legitimeque corrigerent. Et isti sunt, qui iuraverunt pro theloneo in comitatu Arbonis: Walto vicarius , Durinc vicarius, Gundalperht , Amo, Gerpreht, Pazrich, Diotrich, Aschrich, Arbo, Tunzili, Salacho , Helmwin, Sigimar, Gerolt, Ysac, Salaman, Humperht, item Humperht, Engilschalh, Azo, Ortimuot, Ruothoh, Emilo, item Durinc, Reinolt, Eigil vicarius, Poto, Eigilo, Ellinger, Otlant, Gundpold, item Gerolt, Otperht, Adalhelm, Tento, Buoto, Wolfker, Rantolf, Kozperht, Graman, Heimo. Isti et ceteri omnes, qui in hiis tribus comitatibus nobiles fuerunt, post peractum iuramentum interrogati ab Arbone marchione in presentia Theotmari archiepiscopi et Purchardi presulis Pataviensis ecclesie, residente cum eis Otachario comite, in ipso placito in loco, qui dicitur Raffoltestetun, retulerunt loca thelonio et modum theolonei, qualiter temporibus Hludwici et Karlomanni ceterorumque regum iustissime exolvebatur.
(1) Naves vero, que ab occidentalibus partibus, postquam egresse sint silvam Patavicam, et ad Rosdorf vel ubicumque sedere voluerint et mercatum habere, donent pro theloneo semidragmam, id est scoti I; si inferius ire voluerint ad Lintzam, de una navi reddant III semimodios, id est III scafilos de sale. De mancipiis vero et ceteris aliis rebus ibi nichil solvant, sed postea licentiam sedendi et mercandi habeant usque ad silvam Boemicam, ubicunque voluerint.
(2) Si aliquis de Bawaris sal suum ad propriam domum suam transmittere voluerit, gubernatore navis hoc adprobante cum iuramento, nichil solvant, sed securiter transeant.
(3) Si autem liber homo aliquis ipsum legittimum mercatum transierit nichil ibi solvens vel loquens et inde probatus fuerit, tollatur ab eo et navis et substantia. Si autem servus alicuius hoc perpetraverit, constringatur ibidem, donec dominus eius veniens dampnum persolvat, et postea ei exire liceat.
(4) Si autem Bawari vel Sclavi istius patrie ipsam regionem intraverint ad emenda victualia cum mancipiis vel cavallis vel bobus vel ceteris suppellectilibus suis, ubicunque voluerint in ipsa regione, sine theloneo emant, que necessaria sunt. Si autem locum mercati ipsius transire voluerint, per mediam plateam transeant sine ulla constrictione; et in aliis locis ipsius regionis emant sine theloneo, que potuerint. Si eis in ipso mercato magis conplaceat mercari, donent prescriptum theloneum et emant, quecunque voluerint et quanto melius potuerint.
(5) Carre autem salinarie , que per stratam legittimam Anesim fluvium transeunt, ad Urulam tantum unum scafil plenum exsolvant et nichil amplius exsolvere cogantur. Sed ibi naves , que de Trungowe sunt, nichil reddant, sed sine censu transeant. Hoc de Bawaris observandum est.
(6) Sclavi vero, qui de Rugis vel de Boemanis mercandi causa exeunt, ubicunque iuxta ripam Danubii vel ubicunque in Rotalariis vel in Reodariis loca mercandi optinuerint, de sogma una de cera duas massiolas, quarum utraque d scoti unum valeat; de onere unius hominis massiola una eiusdem precii; si vero mancipia vel cavallos vendere voluerit, de una ancilla tremisam I, de cavallo mascu lino similiter, de servo saigam I, similis de equa. Bawari vero vel Sclavi istius patrie ibi ementes vel vendentes nichil solvere cogantur.
(7) Item de navibus salinariis, postquam silvam [Boemicam] transierint, in nullo loco licentiam habeant emendi vel vendendi vel sedendi, antequam ad Eperaespurch perveniant. Ibi de unaqueque navi legittima. id est quam tres homines navigant, exsolvant de sale scafil III, nichilque amplius ex eis exigatur, sed pergant ad Mutarun vel ubicunque tunc temporis salinarium mercatum fuerit constitutum; et ibi similiter persolvant, id est III scafil de sale, nichilque plus; et postea liberam ac securam licentiam vendendi et emendi habeant sine ullo banno comitis vel constrictione alicuius persone; sed quantocunque meliori precio venditor et emptor inter se dare voluerint res suas, liberam in omnibus habeant licentiam.
(8) Si autem transire voluerint ad mercatum Marahorum, iuxta estimationem mercationis tunc temporis exsolvat solidum I de navi et licenter transeat; revertendo autem nichil cogantur exsolvere legittimum.
(9) Mercatores, id est a Iudei et ceteri mercatores, undecunque venerint de ista patria vel de aliis patriis, iustum theloneum solvant tam de mancipiis, quam de aliis rebus, sicut semper in prioribus temporibus regum fuit.
Inquisition on the Tolls of Raffelstetten
Let the industry of all of the orthodox faithful, present indeed and future, know that the request and demand of all the Bavarians, namely the bishops, abbots and all of the counts, who were making journeys into eastern parts, had reached King Louis [the Child], saying that they were constrained and coerced by unjust toll and unfair exchanges in those parts. Hearing this with benign ears he, indeed, according to the custom of the kings his ancestors, ordered Margrave Arbo, along with the judges of the easterners, by whom let this be recorded, that he should look into the toll laws and the custom of toll; and he gave power to his messengers Archbishop Theotmar [of Salzburg], Burchard Bishop of the Church of Passau and Count Otachar, to correct this justly and legitimately in his place. And these are the people who swore about the toll in the county of Arbo: the vicar Walto, the vicar Durinc, Gundalperht, Amo, Gerpreht, Pazrich, Diotrich, Aschrich, Arbo, Tunzili, Salacho, Helmwin, Sigimar, Gerolt, Ysac, Salaman, Humperht, another Humperht, Englischah, Azo, Ortimuot, Ruotoh, Emilo, another Durinc, Reinolt, the vicar Eigil, Poto, Eigilo, Ellinger, Otlant, Gundpold, another Gerolt, Otperht, Adalhelm, Tento, Buoto, Wolfker, Rantolf, Kozperht, Graman, Heimo. These and other men, who were nobles in these three counties, having been interrogated (after swearing the oath) by Margrave Arbo in the presence of Archbishop Theotmar and Burchard Bishop of the church of Passau, with Count Otachar sitting with them, in the court in the place which is called Raffelstetten, reported on the toll places and the custom of the toll that used most justly to be paid in the times of Louis and Carloman and the other kings.
(1) Ships, indeed, which from the western regions, should afterwards have come out at the wood of Passau, and should wish to beach at Rosdorf or anywhere else and make trade, should give a half-drachm in toll, that is 1 scoto; if they should wish to go downriver to Linz, let there be paid three half-modiiper ship, that is three scafils of salt. For slaves and other things let them pay nothing there, but afterwards have license for beaching and trading as far as the Bohemian forest, wherever they shall wish.
(2) If anyone from Bavaria should wish to move his salt to his own house, and the ship’s steersman affirms this with an oath, let them pay nothing, but go without trouble.
(3) If moreover any free man should have carried out a legitimate trade, paying or saying nothing there, and then this shall have been proved, let him be tolled for it both by ship and by goods. If moreover any slave perpetrates this, let him be bound there, until his lord comes and pays off his fine, and afterwards let him be permitted to leave.
(4) If moreover Bavarians or Slavs of that same country should have entered the same region to obtain victuals with slaves or horses or cattle or other furnishings of theirs, let them buy what things are necessary without toll wherever they should wish in the same region. If moreover they should have wished to cross to the same marketplace, let them go halfway across the shore without any constraint; and in other places of the same region let them buy what things they are able to without toll. If it please them better to trade in the same marketplace, let them give the prescribed toll and let them buy whatever they should wish and however much better they can.
(5) On the salt paths, moreover, which cross the river Enns by the legitimate street, let them pay a full scafil at Url and let them be forced to pay nothing further. But let the ships there that are from the Traungau pay nothing, but cross without tax. This is to be observed with respect to the Bavarians.
(6) The Slavs, indeed, who came out from the Rugians or from the Bohemians for purposes of trade, let them have marketplaces wherever [they want] on the bank of the Danube or wherever among the Rotalarii or among the Reodarii [Redarii?], two lumps from one mule’s load of wax, of which both shall be worth 1 scoto; from one man’s load a lump of the same price; if indeed one should wish to sell slaves or horses, 1 tremissis from one female slave, similarly from 1 male horse, 1 saiga from a slave, similarly from a mare.
(7) Also of salt-ships, after they shall have crossed the Bohemian forest, let them have license to buy or sell or beach in no place before they arrive at Ebersburg. There from each legitimate ship, that is one which three man sail, let them pay 3 scafils of salt, and let nothing further be exacted from them, but let them reach Mutarim or wherever shall then have been constituted the salt-market at that time; and let them pay similarly, that is 3 scafils of salt, and no more; and afterwards they shall have free and secure license to sell and buy without any comital fine or the restraint of any person; but however much better a price the buyer and seller should wish to give for their property between themselves, let them have free license in all things.
(8) If moreover they should wish to cross to the marketplace of Marahorum, let them pay 1 solidus per ship, according to the estimation of the market at that time, and cross freely; on returning, moreover, let them be forced to pay nothing legitimate.
(9) Let merchants, that is, Jews and other traders, wherever they should come from in this same country or other countries, pay the just toll as much for slaves as for other goods, just as they always did in the times of previous kings.
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